Common Eyelid Problems that you Shouldn’t Ignore

Disha Eye Hospital

The eyelid is a crucial part of your eyes. Anatomically, the eyelid has a complex structure. It has an anterior layer of skin, an orbicularis oculi muscle, and the posterior layers of tarsus and conjunctiva. The eyelid covers and protects the eyes from any kind of trauma, dust, and any other debris. The closure of eyelid helps in distributing tear film on the eye surface. And that is why the health of your eyelid is essential for the health of your eye. Infection and any kind of irritation can affect the health of your eyelids. Symptoms of eyelid problems include itching, swelling, excessive tearing, and redness.

Common Eyelid Problems

1. Blepharitis

This is one of the most common eyelid problems. It is the inflammation of the margin of the eyelid. The common symptoms of Blepharitis include:

  • Tearing
  • Itching
  • Burning
  • The sensation of a foreign particle inside the eyes
  • Crusting around the eyes after waking up

When examined closely, you will find that the eyelids and lashes are thick with crust and debris. Mild mucus discharge and conjunctival injection may also be present. This condition usually occurs due to chronic bacterial lid infection and other conditions such as acne rosacea that affects the eye (ocular rosacea), meibomian gland dysfunction, and seborrhea.

How to treat it?

Initially, you may treat this condition with warm compresses, antibiotic ointments, and eyelid scrubs. Apply warm compresses for 15 minutes for loosening the crusts and the eyelashes. Warm compresses help in melting the oil produced by the meibomian glands, which can obstruct the orifices of the gland. Scrub the eyelids once you have removed the crusts using Q-tip cotton swabs, washcloth or using your finger. The doctor may prescribe Erythromycin or any another antibiotic ointment that is to be applied to the margin of the eyelid. Since this ointment temporarily blurs the vision, it is better to apply it at bedtime. The doctor may also prescribe antibiotic eye-drops.

If the problem persists, the eye specialist may obtain eyelid cultures for ruling out any possibility of resistant organisms. The doctor may give your oral antibiotics, visit If ignored, severe blepharitis may cause corneal ulcers. This is a chronic disease and eyelid hygiene is extremely important for avoiding the disease.

2. Chalazion

This is a benign and painless bump or occurring inside the upper or lower eyelid. It is caused by healed internal styes. These styes are usually not infectious. These cyst-like bumps form around the meibomian gland (oil gland) present within the eyelid, causing swelling and redness of the eyelids. The chalazion is mainly filled with pus and blocked fatty secretions that usually help in lubricating the eye but doesn’t drain out. Often, chalazion drains and disappears. This is especially when you have used periodic warm compresses and gentle massage on the eyelid. However, some may persist for over several weeks and may also grow to such extent that it becomes cosmetically unappealing. A large chalazion presses the cornea, thus, causing temporary irregularity on your eye surface. It may also induce astigmatism, resulting in blurry vision.


How to treat it?

Apply warm compresses for 15 minutes. Do this multiple times throughout the day. Visit a doctor. The doctor may give you a topical antibiotic if he or she finds any signs of infection are present. If the condition continues for over four weeks, It might require medical therapy and may be incised and drained.

3. Hordeolum or Stye

A hordeolum or a stye is a painful lump appearing either inside or outside the eyelid. It is an abscess which is filled with pus. A stye is caused by Staphylococcus Bacteria. Styes are extremely common and most of the people experience this at least once in their life. The external stye usually starts as a small spot appearing just next to your eyelash. Gradually it turns into a red and painful swelling. It usually lasts several days before it bursts and heals without any kind of treatment. Most of the external styes heal on their own and are short-lived. On the other hand, an internal stye appears on the underside of the eyelid. This also causes a painful reddish swelling. However, due to its location, the familiar whitehead doesn’t appear on the eyelid. The internal stye usually disappears completely after the infection is gone. However, it may also leave a fluid-filled cyst on the eyelid which may be opened and drained.

How to treat it?

Use a cloth soaked in warm water and apply it on the affected the area. Repeat this several times to reduce swelling and redness.


4. Seborrheic Keratosis

This is a non-cancerous lesion or skin growth commonly occurring in older adults. It is a brown or black coloured growth which is greasy, scaly and is slightly elevated. These result from excessive exposure to sun and are usually painless. Removal may require surgical excision. Visit a doctor if you get multiple lesions in a short time.

5. Actinic Keratosis

This condition is marked by rough, patchy, and scaly skin that develops due to constant exposure to the sun. This condition is also known as Solar Keratosis and unlike Seborrheic Keratosis, it can become cancerous. The doctor may perform excisional biopsy for identifying carcinoma-in-situ or dysplasia.

6. Nevus

Also known as freckle of the eye, a nevus is a coloured growth which is much similar to a mole on the skin. This is a pigmented or nonpigmented congenital lesion and may be slightly elevated as well. As you age, the nevus becomes more pigmented or elevated or cystic. The eye nevus is usually harmless. Nevus may appear either on the skin around your eyelids or inside the eye.

7. Xanthelasma

Have you ever seen yellowish growth around the eyelids? These soft yellowish plaques are actually fat deposit under the skin, known as Xanthelasma. This usually appears on the surface of the eyelids or the area surrounding it and indicates congenital disorders related to cholesterol. These are harmless but if you want, you can remove it. You have to undergo a carbon dioxide laser.

8. Molluscum Contagiosum

This is a skin infection caused by Molluscum Contagiosum virus. This virus produces bumps or lesions on the skin surface. If these bumps are present on the eyelids, it may also cause follicular conjunctivitis. This condition can be treated with, cryotherapy or curettage and excision.

9. Hydrocystoma

This is a translucent cyst that appears on the margin of the eyelid. It usually results from a blocked sweat gland in the eyelid. Complete excision needs to be performed for treating the condition.

10. Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of eyelid cancer. It usually appears in the lower eyelid and looks like a pearly nodule. If it appears along the margin of the eyelids then you may see eyelashes missing from that region of the growth. Although this does not metastasize, it Basal Cell Carcinoma can be locally invasive. The treatment involves surgical procedure. If surgery doesn’t seem appropriate, radiation and cryotherapy is also considered.

11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

This is less common condition but is extremely aggressive. It appears as lesions that are scaly, raised, and are centrally ulcerated. The lesions generally occur on the upper eyelid. They may arise from the regions of actinic keratosis. The treatment procedure is similar to that of basal cell carcinoma.

12. Sebaceous Carcinoma

Middle-aged and older adults generally suffer from this condition. Sebaceous carcinoma often mimics a chalazion or blepharitis. It is locally invasive and spreads to the tissues surrounding it. It may also spread to the bones, lungs, and liver. Since it is much aggressive in nature, large and recurrent tumours may require surgical removal.

13. Melanoma

This is a very rare form of eyelid tumour and often appears like nevus. During examination, the doctor may evert the eyelid for investigating any conjunctival involvement. If it changes appearance, then an excisional biopsy of the lesion must be done. Constant and systemic monitoring and evaluation is essential.

14. Entropion

This is a condition where the eyelid margin turns inward. This causes redness, irritation, coupled with white mucus discharge. This condition generally affects the lower eyelid causing the lower eyelashes to rub with the conjunctiva and the cornea. This is more common in older adults and is an age-related condition. The doctor may prescribe teardrops and lubricating eye ointments or may also perform a surgical repair.

15. Ectropion

This is just the opposite of Entropion where the eyelid margin turns outward causing redness, irritation, and tearing. This mainly occurs in the lower eyelid. Treatment methods include application of lubricating tear drops.

16. Trichiasis

In this condition, the eyelashes are misdirected and rub against the cornea. This causes ocular pain, redness, and tearing. Removal of the misdirected eyelashes relieves the symptoms. If those eyelashes regrow, they can be re-epilated. Electrolysis or cryotherapy is also done for eyelash removal.

17. Dermatochalasis

Dermatochalasis is the laxity of eyelids muscle and skin and may cause functional loss of superior vision in case the tissue hangs over the eyelid and into your visual axis. This is an age-related condition and may require surgical repair.

18. Ptosis

Ptosis or droopy eyelid results from the weakening of the muscles that helps raise the eyelids. This is caused by damaged nerves that control these muscles or just due to the sagging of the upper eyelid skin. Ptosis is a part of normal aging process but it may also be caused due to a congenital abnormality or any type of injury to the eye or due to other health conditions such as stroke, tumours or other neurological problem. This can often interfere with vision. If it is caused by any other health condition, treating the underlying condition cures Ptosis.


19. Eyelid Retraction

The upper eyelid usually rests just 2mm below the junction of the sclera and the superior cornea. In case of the lower eyelid, it is at the junction of the sclera and the inferior cornea. The eyelid retracts often due to thyroid ophthalmopathy. If your eyelids are retracted, check your thyroid status. Other causes of eyelid retraction include tumours, blepharoptosis, and midbrain disease. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition.

20. Facial Palsy

Facial palsy makes the closing of the upper eyelid impossible. It also causes laxity of the lower eyelid. Vigorous lubrication of the eye is the way to treat this condition. Use artificial tear drops and lubricating ointment.


21. Blepharospasm

This is a neurological condition marked by the forcible closure of the eyelids. This is the uncontrolled muscle contraction of the eyelids. This abnormal twitching of the eyelids often lasts for a few days and disappear without any treatment. The exact cause of this condition is not known and it is also not associated with any other disease or underlying condition. Primary symptoms are often mild and infrequent spasms. With time, these become forceful and frequent. In advanced stages, it may also cause functional blindness due to the inability to open the eyes temporarily. The treatment involves the periodic injection of botulinum toxin (Botox). This condition can occur with any specific ocular disease or movement disorder.

22. Epiblepharon

This condition is often seen in East Asian children (Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese). In this condition, the lower and the upper eyelids turn inwards resulting in irritation, watering, redness of the eye. In most of the cases, it gets better with lubrication; however, surgical correction may also be considered for permanent relief.


Often, skin problems, such as seborrheic dermatitis and eczema can also affect the eyelids, causing flaking on the skin of the eyelids and eye irritation. People having skin issues and allergies may also have a problem with their skin on the eyelids.

Disha Eye Hospital

Eyelid conditions must be addressed immediately otherwise it may interfere with your vision. If you have any vision-related issues, you may get in touch with the experts at Disha Eye Hospital. Book an appointment at

How Can UV Rays Damage Your Eyes?

Disha Eye Hospital

You must be aware of the potential dangers of harmful UV rays on your skin. But are you aware of the fact that UV rays are equally damaging for your eyes and can cost your vision? Scared, right? Or course we do not want to scare you but wants to share the secrets of protecting your eyes from these harmful rays.

But before we look deeper into the ways UV rays harm your eyes and the remedy, let’s understand what exactly UV radiations are.

All about UV Rays

The Ultraviolet Radiations (UV rays) are a type of electromagnetic radiation and these have higher energy than visible light. UV rays may also come from artificial light sources such welding torches and tanning beds but the sun is the main source of UV rays.[source:]

Experts have divided UV rays according to their wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the more harmful it is. The classification of UV rays is as follows:

1. UVA Rays

This is the weakest of all UV rays as this ray is closer to the visible light spectrum. This ray cannot pass through your skin but can definitely penetrate your Cornea and reach the lens and the Retina of your eyes. If you are exposed to sunlight for long and without any kind of eye protection then, in the long run this might cause certain types of cataracts. UVA rays are the prime culprit behind Macular Degeneration.[source:]

2. UVB Rays

This is a medium-wavelength radiation and can penetrate your skin surface to a certain extent (overexposure to UVB rays give you a sun tan). UVB rays cause pingueculae and pterygia. These are growths on the eye’s surface and can distort your vision and cause other corneal problems. UVB rays also cause a painful eye condition called “Photokeratitis.” Also known as “Snow Blindness,” this is the inflammation of your Cornea and in severe cases may cause temporary vision loss that may last up to 24-48 hours. Since the Cornea absorbs 100% UVB rays, these rays do not cause macular degeneration or cataract (these two are linked with UVA rays).[source:] Although UVB rays cannot filter completely through the earth’s atmosphere but still, a certain amount of these rays reach the earth’s surface.

3. UVC Rays

This ray is the most harmful of the rest of the two. This has the shortest wavelength and is most damaging. Luckily, the Ozone layer completely filters it and UVC rays cannot reach the earth’s surface.[source:]

What Increases your risk of UV Exposure?

While any person who spends too much time out in the sun is at greater risk of UV ray damage but there are certain factors that determine the risks of eye damage from UV rays. These are:

  • Your Geographic Location: UV rays are also strong in tropical regions near the equator.
  • Altitude: UV rays are pretty strong in higher altitude so if you are on a vacation to any hilly area or live there, your eyes are at risk of damage.
  • The time of the Day: When the sun is high in the sky, typically between 10 AM to 2 PM, the risk of damage is greater.
  • Open spaces: Levels of UV rays are higher in open spaces and in places with highly reflective surfaces such as sand and snow increases the chances of eye damage from UV rays.
  • Medicines: Certain medication such as sulfa drugs, tetracycline, diuretics, and birth control pills increase your body’s sensitivity to UV rays.


UV rays and Eye Damage

UV rays can cause serious eye damages. This includes:

  • Macular Degeneration: UV rays cause macular degeneration. This is a condition where the central part of your Retina called Macula is damaged. This blurs your vision, makes it distorted and also results in the development of a blind spot in your field of vision.
  • Cataract: Overexposure to UV rays, especially UV-B rays cause certain kind of cataracts. This is a condition where the natural lens of your eyes gets clouded.
  • Pterygium: This is a growth on your eye that first appears on the white of the eye and may also develop in the cornea. Eventually, the growth blocks your vision. People who stay outside for long hours are particularly at risk.
  • Skin Cancer: Prolonged UV exposure may result in skin cancer around the eyelids.
  • Corneal Sunburn: Also known as photokeratitis, this condition is often caused by high intensity but short-term exposure to UV-B rays. Spending long hours at the beach or in the snow without proper eye protection can cause photokeratitis. This can be painful and may cause temporary vision loss.


Tips for Protecting Your Eyes

Follow these tips to keep your eyes safe in the sun:

  • If you think that sun rays are only harmful during summers then you are wrong. Sun rays can damage your eyes throughout the year. So, wear UV-blocking sunglasses every time you go out in the sun. Get sunglasses that block 100% UVA and UVB rays. Use broad-brimmed hats when outside. This also prevents sun damage to your eyes.
  • UV rays can damage your eyes even on a cloudy day. Clouds can block only visible light but UV radiations can easily penetrate the clouds. So, do not be fooled by the clouds.
  • Avoid looking at the sun directly even during the eclipse even while wearing a sunglass. This may cause solar retinopathy, a condition where solar radiation damages your retina.
  • Kids and older family members are also at risk. Protect their eyes as well. Make them wear UV protected sunglasses and hats when they go out. Use wraparound sunglasses for complete eye protection.


Next time when you are going out in the sun, do not forget to wear protective eye gear. And in case you have any kind of eye problem, simply get in touch with the experts at Disha Eye Hospital.

Eye Care for Computer Users – The Ultimate Guide

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After staring at your computer or laptop for hours, have you ever felt a throbbing pain in your head or have your eyes ever felt dry, itchy, or fatigued? There is a name for all these symptoms- Eyestrain. Be it for work or any other purpose, people are now spending more time staring at the computers or any other digital device. This puts extreme stress on your eyes. Many of you spend more than 10 hours staring directly at the computer. In addition to that, you would also stare at a smartphone or other portable digital device with a small screen and smaller prints which lead to closer viewing distances. Often, while doing so, you forget to blink. This decreases your visual comfort and strains your eyes.

How Computers Affect Your Eyes?

When you working on the computer you eyes have to continuously focus and refocus. The printed lines appearing on the screen are of varied shapes, fonts, and colours. AS you read the lines, your eyes have to move back and forth. Moreover, often you have to refer to printed material and then again look at computer screen. As the images change, your eyes have o react accordingly for your brain to understand what you are seeing. For doing this, your eyes have to work really hard and as a result, it gets tired. This gets worse if the screen has contrast, glare, and flicker issues.

You will have more trouble if you already have any eye problem. If you have glasses and if you do not use them, then it may escalate the problem. Moreover, wearing fancy contact lenses or glasses with wrong lenses that aren’t prescribed by the doctor will increase your eye troubles.

As you age, working on the computer or any digital device gets tough. Your eyes lose their flexibility. Also, as you approach your 40s, your eyes lose their ability to properly focus and refocus on objects both far and near. Eye specialists call this condition Presbyopia. Staring at the computer screen for long hours make your eyes weaker and affect your vision.


Reading something on a computer screen is completely different than reading something on a printed page. Letters on a computer screen are often not well defined or sharp. The level of contrast of the letters compared to their background is also reduced and the glare from your computer screen makes reading a difficult task. Moreover, the viewing distances and angles that you generally use for doing computer work is different from the angles that you use for reading books or printed documents and writing. And that is why the eye focusing and eye movement requirements for computer work make your visual system work hard. If you are in your 40s, your eyes will find it a bit difficult to adjust to this additional requirement. Even the eyeglasses or contact lenses that are prescribed for general use may not seem appropriate for computer-related work. You may need to get specialised lenses that are designed to meet such additional demands for your eyes. This lens with certain power, coating, and tints helps in maximising your visual abilities and your viewing comfort.


How to Reduce Eye Strain

Here’s a list of what you can do to minimise eye strain:

1. Minimise glare.

Change the lighting of your environment or work station. This will help reduce the effect on your computer screen. If you sit near a window, move away. It’s because the light from the window may cast a glare on the computer screen. You may install a dimmer or get a desk lamp with movable shade. This will cast light evenly on your desk or else, you may even add a glare filter to your monitor. Most of the times, excessively bright light from other light sources (harsh interior light or light coming through the window) cause eye strain. Technically, when you are using a computer, the ambient light should be half as bright as found in any office setting. Close the drapes and shades to minimise exterior light. Reduce interior light by using lower intensity lights. Position your computer of a laptop in a way that the windows are to your side and not behind you or just in front of you. Turn off any overhead fluorescent light. Often, this might be uncomfortable for your eyes.


2. Check your sitting Arrangement

The monitor should be slightly below your eye level. It should be about 20 to 28 inches away from your face. Ideally, while working n a computer, you shouldn’t be stretching your neck and get closers to the computer to see what’s written on the screen. If you have to look simultaneously at the computer and any other printed document, place the document in a way that you do not have to look down and the up to the screen while you type. Put a stand next to the computer and fix the document there.

3. Give your eyes some exercise

It’s your eyes and not a machine. They too need a break. So when you are working on the computer at a stretch, try to follow the 20-20-20 rule. Look away from the computer screen every 20 minutes and look at anything that’s at least 20 feet away from you. Look at it for about 20 seconds. Use eye drops if your eyes hurt. You may try another exercise. Look at any object located far away for 10-15 seconds and then look at something that’ located nearby for about 10-15 seconds. Then again look back at the objects located far away. Repeat this for 10 times. Often, staring for long times at the computer screen locks the eyes’ focusing ability also known as accommodative spasm. This exercise helps in avoiding this condition.

Both of these exercises will reduce your risk of eye strain. Blink frequently while performing these exercises.

4. Change your computer display settings

You don’t need to continue with the presets installed in your computer or laptop. You can change them if it’s uncomfortable for your eyes. Adjust the following things:

  • Brightness: It should be about the same as the brightness of your surroundings. Look at the computer screen and then look at your surrounding background. If the screen appears like a light source, it’s too bright and if it’s too dull compared to the surrounding, the screen is too dark for comfortable viewing.
  • The contrast and text size: Adjust the text size and contrast, especially when you are reading long documents. Black letters printed on a white background is best for comfortable viewing.
  • Adjust the Colour temperature: The display of your computer emits blue light. This light has short-wavelength and causes more eye strain compared to longer wavelength colours such as red and orange. Lowering the colour temperature of your display reduces the amount of blue light emitted by it, thus increasing viewing comfort.


5. Upgrade the computer display

Still using the old tube-style monitor (called a cathode ray tube or CRT)? If yes, then replace it with an LCD display. LCD screens have anti-reflective surface and also, do not have flicker issues. Flickering images increase eye strain. Flicker can also be an issue if the refresh rate of your screen is less than 75 hertz (Hz). In case you are still using a CRT screen adjust the display settings to the highest refresh rate. While buying new LCD display, get a screen that has the highest resolution. This is often related to the “dot pitch” of the computer display. Displays having a low dot pitch have sharp images. While buying, choose one with a display of a dot pitch of .28 mm or smaller. Choose a large display. Get a display having a diagonal screen size of at least 19 inches.

6. Blink often

How often does it happen that you are so much into your work that you forget to blink? Is this common when you are working on a computer? If yes, then this might leave your eyes fatigued and tired. Not blinking while staring at the computer makes your eyes dry and itchy. Blink often to prevent this. Blinking moistens your eyes, thus reducing eye fatigue. The tear coating on your eyes evaporates quickly when you do not blink for a long time. And this is one of the main causes of dry eyes. Moreover, the air in your workstation may be dry, thus increasing the rate at which tears evaporate from your eyes. If you are experiencing dry eyes symptoms, then consult a doctor immediately. The doctor may prescribe you artificial tears for reducing the symptoms.

7. Take frequent breaks

Computer vision syndrome also results in shoulder, neck and back pain. To avoid this, take frequent breaks while working on your computer. Many of you take one or two long breaks during work hours. If you think this will reduce eye strain then you are wrong. This won’t help reduce discomfort. Instead of taking one or two breaks, take frequent 5-minute breaks in between work. When you take a break, stand up, stretch your legs, back, arms, and neck. This reduces muscle fatigue and tension. You may even talk to a fitness expert and get a list of the quick sequence of exercise you perform during the breaks.

8. Treat any uncorrected Vision Problem

Even a minor vision-related issue can affect your viewing comfort levels. Often, we tend to ignore minor vision related issues. Eye issues such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, binocular vision, presbyopia, and astigmatism if left untreated then can be a major contributing factor in increasing eye-related stress. Most of the computer users suffer from uncorrected vision problems. Most of these conditions often do not manifest themselves in works that are less visually demanding but appear while doing a visually demanding work. Most of the people tend to ignore this as a temporary problem. And this worsens the condition. If you work on a computer, you must undergo a comprehensive eye examination periodically. The examination must include an analysis of your eye function at various working distances.


9. Wear computer eyewear

This is necessary for the comfort of your eyes. Talk to your eye care specialist and get your glasses (if you use any) modified for maximum visual comfort. If you wear contact lenses then you should immediately do this. It’s because contact lenses often become dry and uncomfortable when used for a longer time. If you wear bifocals then also computer eyewear is a good option for you. Consider wearing photochromic lenses or lightly tinted lenses for computer viewing. This reduces your exposure to blue light emitted by the digital devices. Talk to your doctor today.


Take Care of Your Eyes

Follow these steps for healthy eyesight:

  • Eat healthily: Good vision depends on getting enough nutrients. Eat food items with lutein, omega-3 fatty acid, Vitamin C and E. Eat lots of green leafy veggies, fish, citrus fruit, eggs, beans, and nuts.
  • Do not Smoke: Smoking harms your eyes and damages the optic nerves. It also increases your chances of cataract and macular degeneration.
  • Protect your eyes in the sun: Wear UV protected sunglasses whenever you go out. This reduces your chances of cataract and macular degeneration and other UV ray-related eye issues.
  • Use protective wear: Whenever you are playing or doing any dangerous work, wear safety eye gear for protecting your eyes.


Regularly visit your eye doctor and get your eyes thoroughly checked. Do not avoid even the slightest discomfort that you may have in your eyes. You may need glasses or contact lenses or special glasses, let the doctor decide what’s best for your eyes. If you are looking for places where you may get your eyes thoroughly checked, you may consider booking an appointment with the experts at the Disha Eye Hospital.

Childhood Cataracts: What you Need to Know

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Your eye lens is crystal clear. When it gets cloudy or any opacity of your eyes is called Cataract. Cataracts are of many types. Some are minor and do not interfere with your vision. However, others can be large and cause vision impairment. If you think that cataracts only affect older adults, you are wrong. Babies are also born with cataracts or children may develop them at a very young age. Such conditions are called Childhood cataracts.

Childhood cataracts are also known as:

  • Congenital cataracts – This is when a baby is born with cataract or develops it shortly after birth.
  • Developmental or Juvenile cataracts – This is when older children develop a cataract.


Classification of Cataract in Children

Cataracts in children depend on a number of factors such as age, causes and forms of cataracts. Depending on these factors, the classification of cataract in children is as follows:

1. The Age of Onset

  • Congenital or Infantile Cataract

Lens opacity may be present at birth indicating a congenital onset of cataract but often this may go unrecognised. So, a later diagnosis of lens opacity also falls under this category. Before the cataract is extracted, it is essential to provide a thorough description of the type of the lens opacity. Determination of type is essential to find out whether it is associated with any other disease or not. Morphological categories of cataracts including central foetal nuclear, anterior polar, and posterior polar indicate a congenital cataract. On the other hand, conditions such as Lamellar or cortical cataract can also be associated congenital or a later onset of cataract.

  • Juvenile Cataract

This cataract is caused due to an external cause. Many use this term for indicating the onset of cataract after infancy, which may not indicate a non-genetic cause.

Childhood Cataract: Causes

There are several factors for the onset of cataract in children. These include:

  • Genetic

Around half of the childhood cataracts are the result of genetic mutations. These genes code for proteins that are responsible for lens structure or clarity. Any metabolic disorders may cause cataracts.

  • Trauma

This is one of the primary reasons of acquired cataracts in children. This type of cataract is more common in boys. They may get it due to a penetrating or blunt injury to the eye. Also, the presence of intraocular or intraorbital foreign body may also cause this. So a thorough eye examination is essential.

Secondary Causes

Secondary causes of cataract include:

  • Uveitis – Cataracts may develop due to chronic ocular inflammation or due to the chronic use of steroids. Surgery of this type of cataracts is often complicated by postoperative inflammation. So, to avoid pre operative inflammation in the anterior segment of the eye, any usage of pre-, intra-, and postoperative sub conjunctival, topical, intracameral, and other systemic steroids should be avoided. Patients may often have a pupillary membrane covering the lens. This attaches to the iris, thus further complicating the surgery. These membranes can be peeled off of the anterior lens capsule during surgery for facilitating lens removal. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is yet another cause of anterior uveitis in children. Any other type of uveitis may also cause cataract due to inflammation of by complications created by usage of steroids.
  • Intraocular tumours – It is very rare for cataracts to develop as a result of intraocular tumours. However, treatment of such a tumour using radiotherapy may lead to the development of cataract. In this case, the timing of removal of cataract removal needs to be carefully considered.
  • Chronic retinal detachment – These cataracts result from injuries or are often associated with Stickler syndrome. If the lens is completely opaque, the eye specialist will perform pre operative ultrasonography to rule out any possibilities of chronic retinal detachment.
  • Maternal infection (rubella) – This type of cataract is only seen in some parts of the world where rubella hasn’t been eradicated.

Forms of Cataract

The forms of Childhood Cataract includes:

Diffuse or Total Cataract

This is one of the common types of congenital cataract; however, there is no specific cause of this type of cataracts.

Anterior Cataract

This type of cataract can be further divided into three forms:

  • Anterior polar – The opacity appears in the capsule itself and may extend into the anterior chamber as a very tiny mammillation.
  • Pyramidal – These are comparatively larger than Anterior polar cataracts and may progress to visual significance. Such type of cataract is pretty difficult to remove using a vitrectomy instrument. It may require removal using forceps.
  • Anterior lenticonus – This condition refers to a thinned central anterior capsule with or without any anterior cortical opacity. This condition is a characteristic of Alport syndrome. The lens may get ruptured causing a hydrated total cataract.

Cortical lamellar

This cataract occurs between the adjacent clear lamellae.

Fetal nuclear

This type of cataract occurs in the central part of the lens. They may appear like a dot or may also be dense. This type of cataract usually measure between 2-3.5 mm and is often associated with microphthalmia. It is said to be associated with postoperative glaucoma and may need surgery during early infancy.

Posterior polar

This type of cataract is different from posterior subcapsular cataract. The opacity occurs in the capsule itself.

Posterior lentiglobus (lenticonus)

In this condition, the central and sometimes paracentral posterior capsule thins and may protrude to the rear. This happens where the hyaloid system connects to the eye. This type of distortion may result in a specific area of extreme myopic refraction.

Posterior subcapsular

This type of cataract can be congenital but in most of the cases, is acquired due to any injury or steroid use. The opacity is cortical and does not involve the capsule.

Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV)

The opacity in this type of cataract is generally capsular. It is associated with, thickening, shrinkage, and vascularization of the capsule.

Traumatic disruption of lens

Traumatic anterior lens capsule ruptures quickly in children causing hydrated white cataract.


The signs of cataracts

There are several signs indicating your child might be suffering from cataracts. The signs are as follows:

  • The child may not look directly towards any object. They may respond to faces or any other large, bright and colourful objects. If you see that your infant cannot locate small objects while he or she is crawling on the floor, then he may have vision problems or is suffering from cataracts.
  • When exposed to bright sunlight, the child may excessively squint and scowl, and try to shield his or her eye. This is due to the resulting glare from a cataract.
  • Your child’s eyes may not be aligned. They may not focus properly on the same point at a time. This condition is also known as strabismus.
  • Instead of a red reflex, you may notice a white reflex in your child’s eye. For instance, in the photograph of the child, one of his/her eyes may appear white while the other has the usual “red eye” look.
  • The child may have repetitive wandering movement in the affected eyes. This condition is also known as nystagmus. This sign may appear later when the infant is several months old.


Treating Cataracts in Children

The treatment options for cataract in children include:


The doctor will perform the surgery on your baby under general anaesthetic. It takes approximately an hour or two. Usually, an ophthalmologist performs this operation. If the child has cataracts are from birth, then you must get it operated as soon as possible. Usually, within a month or two of birth, the operation needs to be carried out. Any negligence or delay may result in vision loss.

Before the operation is performed, the ophthalmologist will apply drops to your baby’s eyes. This is for dilating the pupil of the eye. After that, the doctor makes a very small cut on the surface of the cornea and the removes the cloudy lens. In many cases, the doctor inserts a transparent plastic lens known as an intraocular lens (IOL) or an intraocular implant. This is done during the operation for replacing the cloudy lens that has been removed. This lens is inserted because you cannot focus without a lens. However, many times, the doctor may prescribe the use of external contact lenses or glasses (in case both the eyes are affected) for compensating for the lens removal. These external lenses are fitted a week of two after the operation.

The majority of the ophthalmologists will recommend using contact lenses or glasses in children who are under 12 months old during the time of their eye surgery. This is because babies who have an IOL inserted in their eyes have a higher risk of eye complications or may need further surgery. Once the operation is done, the incision in the eyes of your child will be closed with stitches which eventually dissolve.

Post- Operation

Once the operation is over, the doctor will place a pad or a transparent shield on your child’s eye for protecting it. In most of the cases, the child needs to stay in the hospital overnight so that the doctors may monitor his/her recovery.

If your child has cataracts in both eyes the doctor will operate on both eyes separately. This is done to reduce the risk of any complications that may affect both the eyes. Usually, there is a gap of several days between the two operations. The doctor may perform the second surgery within a week of the first one.

The doctor will provide you eye drops that you need to put in your child’s eye. This drop helps in reducing inflammation, redness and any kind of swelling in the eye. Every two to four hours, you need to put the drops in your child’s eyes. The doctor will show you the method before leaving the hospital.

Further treatment

After undergoing a cataract surgery, most of the children need to wear glasses or contact lenses. This is because the vision is usually blurred in the operated eye and it may not be able to focus on its own. Even if an artificial lens is fitted, the child will need glasses or contact lenses. This helps the child to focus on nearby objects as the artificial lens can only focus on distant objects.

Wearing a patch

For almost all cases of unilateral cataract (where only one eye is affected), the child needs to wear an eye patch. The doctor may also recommend wearing an eye patch of a child with cataracts in both eyes has a weaker vision in one eye. They need to wear the temporary patch on the stronger eye. This is known as occlusion therapy.

Occlusion therapy is used for improving vision in the weaker eye by forcing the brain to identify visual signals from the affected/operated eye. Without this treatment, children with unilateral cataract may not be able to develop good vision in the operated eye.

Orthoptists (often described as the physiotherapists for the eye) assess the visual function. The Orthoptist is the one to guide you about when your child needs to wear the patch and how long they may use it.


A strong vision is essential for a child’s overall physical development including his/her success in school. In babies and young children, the vision system is not fully developed and equal input from both eyes is required for the proper growth of the vision centres of the brain. If your child’s brain doesn’t receive clear images from the eyes, his vision may get affected and become extremely limited in such a way that it cannot be corrected even later in their life. So, it’s extremely crucial to detect eye problems very early in life and treat them at the quickly once they are detected.

Perform a thorough vision checkup after he/she is born. The doctors usually do this. Check the child’s vision again during infancy, preschool and during his/her school years.

How can Disha Eye Hospital help you?

If you are looking for experienced eye specialist for performing a thorough check up of your or your child’s eye, you can book an appointment with our experts. Protecting your and your child’s vision is our first priority. Book an appointment today at

Protect your Vision When you have Diabetes

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Our eyes are sensitive and delicate by nature, and diabetes can cause damage to them. Diabetes can impose great harm to eye health by causing vision impairment and even vision loss.

According to WebMD, diabetes is a primary cause of blindness in adults aged from 20 to 74. There are several types of eye diseases associated with diabetes including Diabetic Macular Edema, Diabetic Retinopathy, cataract, and glaucoma. NIH also states that all forms of diabetic eye disease can cause severe vision loss and blindness.

Here are some of the ways how you should protect your vision when you have diabetes.

1) Practice good diabetes management
diabetes management
Diabetes increases the sugar levels in the blood which can cause the tiny blood vessels in your eyes to suffer from serious damage. In most cases, it’s often unmanaged diabetes that triggers the onset of eye complications such as diabetic retinopathy which causes the blood vessels in the retina to leak blood.

So, one of the best ways for protecting your vision is to keep your blood sugar level in check. Maintain a strict routine for checking your blood sugar as high blood sugar can alter the shape of the eyes’ lens which can cause blurry vision. Also, you need to make sure that you maintain a healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

You should also consult with your doctor. When your doctor knows that you have diabetes, he/she can be prepared to offer appropriate screenings to monitor eye health. Doing so can eventually lower the risk of developing eye complications.

2) Have regular dilated eye examination

According to American Academy of Ophthalmology, Diabetic Retinopathy doesn’t have any symptoms during the early stages. So, you may never know that you have Diabetic Retinopathy unless severity such as vision impairment starts to appear.

So, the best way to prevent the onset of Diabetic Retinopathy is to do timely dilated eye exam. During a dilated eye exam, your doctor conducts a thorough examination of the retina and optic nerve – mainly for checking signs of damage before it worsens. When you have your eye health under scrutiny, your doctor can arrange treatment for treating the disease when it’s not reached the advanced stage.

3) Boost eye health with proper diet
Boost eye health
Apart from managing your blood sugar levels and undergoing regular dilated eye exam, you should also eat healthy food. Maintaining a well-balanced diet that is rich in nutrients can boost eye health which, in turn, can significantly reduce the risk of diabetic eye diseases.

According to Healthline, our eyes require several antioxidants to stay healthy. These include Zinc, Vitamin A, C, E, zeaxanthin, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, and beta-carotene. Foods that boost eye health include fish (particularly salmon), kale, carrots, eggs, oranges and almonds.

In general, you have to include leafy vegetables, lean meat, and colourful fruits in your diet for boosting your eye health.

4) Exercise regularly
Eye protection
Exercise is the ultimate answer to maintaining good health and managing diabetes. Interestingly, exercise is good for your eye health as well – according to American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Although exercise might not benefit eye health directly, it can help in lowering blood sugar levels (in case of diabetes) which, in turn, improves your eye health. So, make sure that you exercise regularly. You can set a routine as to when you can manage your time and exercise for at least 30 minutes a day.

Your exercise regime doesn’t necessarily have to include heavy workouts. Light to moderate-intensity workouts including brisk walking, jogging, running, cycling and swimming are good for eye health. Moderate intensity exercise such as running and jogging can help in reducing eye pressure in young adults.

5) Eye protection
Eye protection
As discussed above, our eyes are delicate and therefore need great care, especially in case of diabetic patients. Apart from maintaining a good eye health, you have to be concerned about protecting your eyes as well, and the best way to do such is to wear sunglasses.

Sunglasses are more than a fashion accessory as they play a key role in protecting your eyes from harmful UV rays. According to NIH, a study funded in part by NEI (National Eye Institute) found out that chronic exposure to sunlight can increase the risk of cataract. What’s more surprising is that people with diabetes stand at a greater risk of triggering eye complication with exposure to the UV rays.

So, it is important that you wear sunglasses whenever you go outside, even if it’s cloudy as UV rays can pass through thin clouds and haze. It is even better if you are able to get your hands on frames that come with a close-fitting wraparound style as UV rays can even affect the sensitive skin surrounding the eyelid which can cause skin cancer.

6) Quit smoking
Quit smoking
Quitting smoking should be one of the first priorities in the prospect of preventing diabetic eye disease. Apart from imposing a serious threat to overall health, smoking also deteriorates eye health, especially in case of diabetic patients.

According to Healthline, smoking can potentially accelerate the development of diabetic retinopathy and worsen the disease. Over time, worsening of diabetic retinopathy can eventually lead to blindness. So, it is a must that you quit smoking and other tobacco-related products.

If you are one of those who finds it impossible to quit smoking, you can undergo therapies that help you get over with it. You can even take over-the-counter aids and nicotine gums for extra help. But you need to be aware of the fact that nicotine raises blood sugar. So, you need to cut off your consumption on nicotine-related aids once you quit smoking.

Get your eyes regularly checked at Disha Eye Hospital even though you feel your vision is normal.

26 Ways to Care for your Contact Lenses and Eyes

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Eyes are vulnerable to infections; especially when you wear contact lenses. If you do not use contact lenses as directed or do not take proper care of it, you could be damaging your eyes. The most important thing that you can do is to keep your lenses clean. Other than that, there are a number of things that you can do to take proper care of your eyes and contact lenses. Take a look:

Take Care of your Contact Lenses

Here is how you can take care of your contact lenses

1. Wash your hands with soap before. Pat them dry using a lint-free towel before you handle your contact lenses.

2. Keep the contact lenses away from water. Remove lenses before going to swimming or while bathing.

3. Avoid using saline solution and rewetting drops for disinfecting your lenses.

4. Wear lenses as per guideline. Replace them according to the schedule as prescribed by the eye specialist.

5. NEVER put your contact lenses in your mouth to get them wet.

6. When cleaning, rub the contact lenses using fingers first. After that, rinse the lenses with a solution and then soak them. As per the eye experts, this “rub and rinse” method is the best way of cleaning the contact lens. Even if the solution is a “no-rub” variety then also you can use it to rub the lenses.

7. Follow proper guideline for cleaning and storing the lenses. Ask the eye specialist for the guidelines.

8. NEVER rinse or wash your contact lenses with water. Do not even think of keeping them in water instead of the solution.

9. If you are storing the lenses in the case for a longer period, follow the instructions to determine if you need to re-disinfect the lenses before wearing them again. In any case, avoid wearing a contact lens after storing it for at least 30 days without re-disinfecting the lenses.

10. ALWAYS rinse the contact lens case using fresh solution. NEVER use water. Leave the empty case open and air-dry it.

11. Never let the tip of the solution bottle to come in contact with any other surface. Tightly close the bottle after use or when not in use.

12. Replace the contact lens case at least every three months. These can be a source of infection. NEVER use damaged lens cases.

13. NEVER re-use old contact lens solution.

14. Avoid transferring the contact lens solution into any other container. This affects the sterility of the solution, and this might cause an eye infection.


Take Care of Your Eyes

If you wear lenses, then take proper care of your eyes to avoid any kind of infection. Here is how you can keep your eyes safe:

15. Wear your contacts as per your doctor recommends. Wear them as long as the doctor thinks it’s necessary.

16. In case you cannot keep track of the time when to change your lenses, ask your eye doctor to give you a chart for tracking your schedule. Or else, make a chart for yourself.

17. NEVER EVER wear someone else’s contact lenses, especially if its wearer already uses those lenses. Using other’s contact lenses can get you eye infections or other foreign bodies from their eyes to yours.

18. NEVER sleep with your contact lenses in. Avoid doing it unless you have an extended-wear lens. When you close your eyelids, your tears don’t get much oxygen to your eyes compared to when it’s open. So, take the lenses off before going to sleep.

19. When going out, wear sunglasses with complete UV protection. You can even wear a hat. Contact lenses make your eyes light-sensitive.

20. Keep your eyes moist and use a rewetting solution (if only recommended by your doctor).

21. Often people accidentally wear contact lenses inside out. Although this doesn’t hurt it doesn’t feel good even. In order to avoid this keep the lens on the tip of your finger so that it forms a cup. Now, look at the contact from the side. If the cup of the lens appears like it flares out at the top and has a lip that means the lens is inside out. And if it appears like the letter “U,” then it is the right side out.

If wearing contact lenses gets your eye irritated, take out the lenses. Talk to your doctor and do not wear them until as suggested by the doctor. If you continue wearing them, your eye will get infected.

23. In case you have sudden vision loss or have a blurred vision that won’t get better; if you experience light flashes, swelling and unusual redness in your eye, go to your eye doctor right away.


24. If you smoke, then quit smoking. Coontact lens wearers who smoke are more likely to get eye problems than non-smokers.

25. Do not use any decorative lenses. Avoid buying lenses that are sold at the at costume shops. These lenses can damage your eyes permanently.

26. Get your eyes regularly checked. If you wear contact lenses, you should visit an eye care specialist quarterly or annually as per your need and as suggested by the doctor.


You are suffering from a contact-lens related infection if you experience these following symptoms:

  • blurry vision
  • unusual redness of the eye
  • feeling like there is something in your eye
  • pain in the eye
  • light sensitivity
  • tearing or heavy discharge from the eye

Do not avoid these symptoms as contact lens-related eye infections can cause severe complications and even cause vision loss. Rush to an eye specialist if you wear a contact lens and experience all these symptoms.


Let Disha Eye Hospital Take Care of Your Eyes

We have dedicated eye specialist to take care of each need of your eyes. Our specialists are committed to their promise to keep your eyes safe and help you see well. Book an appointment today at 03366360000. For booking, you can also visit

10 Facts on Eye Injuries

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Eye injuries can happen anytime, anywhere. You might get an eye injury while playing a sport or you might accidentally bump your eye. Even dust particles blown into your eyes can injure your eyes. While many small injuries and surface scratches can be treated at home easily, many serious eye injuries might cost you your vision. Here’re a few facts about eye injuries and ways to treat them:

1. Cut on your Eyelid or Eyelid Laceration
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Sports and recreational activities often expose you to the risk of eyelid laceration. A direct blow to your eyes might cut and injure the eyelid and also result in bruising around your eyes. If you have cut your eyelid, use a sterile bandage to cover that area. Avoid cotton as it might get stuck in the wound. Apply ice packs and keep your head elevated to reduce swelling. You can take painkillers such as ibuprofen and aspirin (do not take aspirin if you are younger than 20 years). If the symptoms do not go away by 24 hours, visit an eye specialist immediately.


2. Corneal Abrasion
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Common causes of corneal abrasion include rubbing the eye hard when a foreign particle is present in the eye or if you get poked in your eye. This condition is very uncomfortable and makes your eyes red and cause swelling. If you get a scratched on your eye, avoid rubbing and patching it. This exposes it to bacterial infection. Keep your eyes closed or loosely tape it. Apply an ice pack. Visit your doctor immediately to avoid any further complication.


3. Chemical Burn

There might be situations chemicals might get sprayed into your eyes. It could be during cleaning your home or during any other activity. While some chemicals are relatively harmless causing just a stinging and burning sensation for a while but there are some that might result in serious eye damage. Acids can be easily washed out from your eyes while Alkali substances may cause serious injuries. If you accidentally get chemicals in your eye, then do not rub it. Instead, put your head into a stream of water and let the water run through your eyes and down your face for at least 15 minutes. Put a cool and moist compress on your eyes. Your eye is at greater risk if it continues to be red and your vision is blurred. Immediately consult an eye specialist if the condition persists.


4. Traumatic Iritis
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It is an injury to the coloured part of your eye that’s surrounding the pupil. A blow to your eyes with a blunt object such as a ball or fist cause traumatic iritis. To treat this condition, you need to visit the doctor. Ensure that you take the medication on time. Sometimes, light or glare can cause discomfort in your eyes. To avoid that, wear dark glasses.


5. Black eye

When you are struck in your eyes, you might get a Black eye. The signs of a black eye are swelling in the eyelid and the soft tissue around the eye that has been struck. Sometimes this is accompanied by broken blood vessels along the white part of your eye. This is also known as a subconjunctival haemorrhage. Initially, the colour might appear deep purple or blue and then turn to green before disappearing. It takes about a week to vanish completely. Apply cold compress on that areas. This helps in easing swelling and narrowing your blood vessels. That helps in stopping bleeding below your skin. Give 10 minutes intervals in between each application. Otherwise, he ice can damage your skin. Visit the doctor if you have blurred or double vision.


6. Subconjunctival Haemorrhage
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Broken blood vessels in the eye are pretty common and are caused by a blow or trauma to the eyes. This may result from even a minor injury to the eye. This is a painless condition and doesn’t cause vision loss. In such cases, avoid rubbing your eyes as this might aggravate the condition. A subconjunctival haemorrhage usually heals on its own and doesn’t need any treatment. Depending on how big the spot is, the injury might take a few days or a few weeks to heal. You might apply artificial tears to sooth the irritation; however, this doesn’t heal the injury. If you get this injury often, talk to your eye specialist.


7. Hyphaema

This condition occurs when any injury to the eye tears its iris or pupil. People tend to mistake this condition with subconjunctival haemorrhage which is a painless and harmless condition. Hyphaema causes pain in your eyes and even cause blurred vision. Your eyes will appear as if it is filled with blood. This is a condition that calls for immediate medical attention. Go straight to an eye specialist for further treatment. If neglected, it might affect your quality of vision.


What to Do in Case of Eye Injury?

8. In the case of any eye injury, keep in mind the following things:

  • NEVER touch, rub the eyes
  • NEVER try to remove the object that’s stuck in your eyes
  • NEVER apply any ointment to the eye

9. If the eyes have been cut then:

  • NEVER rinse eye with water
  • NEVER apply pressure to the eye or rub it

10. If any foreign particle gets in your eyes then:

  • NEVER rub the eye
  • Blink rapidly to get the tears to flush out the foreign body
  • If it doesn’t go, keep the eye closed and visit a doctor
  • Seek medical attention right away in case of any injury.

Disha Eye Hospital Can help you with your Eye Problems

Be it a minor injury or a serious issue, problems in the eyes shouldn’t be ignored. If you have any kind of eye issues, you can refer to our specialists. Our eye specialists are working relentlessly to keep your vision safe. Call us today at 03366360000 or visit to book an appointment.

25 Data-Backed Eye Care Tips

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It is very important to take good care of your eyes. Poor vision makes it difficult for you to carry on your day-to-day activities. It would be difficult for you to read, write, drive, or cook. Fortunately, you can easily avoid a number of eye problems and eye diseases if they are diagnosed early and if you maintain the basic eye care routine.

You can do a lot to ensure that you enjoy a healthy vision throughout your life. Here are a few tips for you:

Lifestyle Tips to Maintain Healthy Eyesight

1.  Conduct a dilated eye exam

dilated eye exam

You might think that your vision is fine and you do not need to go for any eye check-up. But, how to make sure that your eyes are alright? That’s why you need to visit your eye care specialist and undergo a comprehensive dilated eye exam. There are a number of eye diseases such as Diabetic Eye Disease, Glaucoma, and Age-related Macular Degeneration that do not have early warning signs. With a dilated eye exam, your eye specialist can easily detect these diseases when in their early stages. During this exam, the eye specialist will give you eye drops for dilating or widening the pupil. In this way, more light can enter your eye, and the eye specialist can get a good look at the back of the eyes and determine if there are any signs of damage or disease or not. An eye specialist is the only one to determine whether your eyes are healthy or not. Moreover, when it comes to vision problems, many people do not realise that it can be corrected using glasses or contact lenses. For identifying these issues, you need to visit the doctor.

2. Be Aware of the eye health history of you family

Eye conditions are often hereditary; which means you can acquire them from your ancestors. To prevent the onset of any eye disease it essential to know the eye health history of your family. Talk to your family and see if there is anyone who has been diagnosed with an eye disease or condition. This information will help understand whether you are at greater risk of an eye disease or not.

3. Eat well

A diet rich in essential vitamins and nutrients is essential, for maintaining good eyesight. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables, particularly green leafy ones is extremely beneficial for your eyes. Fish is also considered good for eyesight as they contain high levels of Omeg-3 fatty acids.

4. Maintain a healthy weight

If you are overweight or obese, you are at greater risk of getting diabetes and other health conditions. This also affects your vision. For instance, diabetes gives you a condition called Diabetic Eye Disease. Talk to a nutritionist today if you are unable to keep a check on your weight.

5. Always wear protective eye gear

protective eye gear

If you are into sports or your work involves heavy physical and mechanical activities (for instance if you work in the construction fields) then always ensure that you are wearing protective eyewear. Use protective gears such as goggles, safety glasses, safety shields, and eye guards. These are specially designed to protect your eyes. Most of the manufacturers use polycarbonate for making protective eyewear lenses. This is 10 times stronger than any other plastic material.

6. Quit smoking

Smoking is harmful to your eyes and the rest of your body. Smoking increases the risk of developing conditions such as Cataract, Age-related Macular Degeneration, and optic nerve damage. These conditions can lead to blindness.

7. Protect your eyes from Sun damage

Sunglasses are not just fashion accessories, but they do one of the most important jobs- they protect your eyes from UV damage from the sun. When purchasing one, check whether it blocks 99% to 100% of both UV-A and UV-B rays or not.

8. Let your eyes rest for a while

Spending a long time in front of computer or smartphones can damage your eyes. If you are focusing a lot on the computer screen, sometimes you forget to blink, and your eyes get fatigued. Follow the 20-20-20 rule. Every 20 minutes, look away from your computer screen to a place about 20 feet in front of you. Look for 20 seconds. This helps reduce eyestrain.
9. Clean your hands before putting contact lenses
This helps to avoid the risk of infection. Ensure that you have disinfected the contact lenses and have replaced them appropriately.


Food for Eye

How Nutrients boost Vision?

10. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) conducted by the National Eye Institute’s (NEI) in 2001 found that proper intake of nutrients and taking nutritional supplements can reduce the risk of getting advanced Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). In this study, the formulation that was used contained vitamins C and E, Zinc, Beta-Carotene, and copper. The study found that those who took that formulation were 25% less likely to develop advanced AMD.

11. In 2006, the NEI conducted a second study, AREDS2, in order to improve the original AREDS formulation. Researchers used lutein and zeaxanthin instead of beta-carotene this time. The study AREDS2 concluded that the formulation improved the ocular health of the participants. The formulation included Vitamin E (400 IU), Vitamin C (500 mg), zeaxanthin (2 mg), lutein (10 mg.), zinc (80 mg) and copper (2 mg).

12. Since the study, this formulation has been adopted by many optometrists around the world for reducing the risk of AMD and keeping the eye healthy.

13. Zeaxanthin and lutein are primary macular pigments that are mainly found in the Fovea of your eye. The Fovea protects your eyes from harmful rays and filters high-energy blue wavelengths of light, thus protecting and maintaining the healthy cells. If you do not take proper nutrients, then the levels of macular pigment decrease. Taking Lutein and Zeaxanthin supplements increase the levels of macular pigment and protect your eyes against diseases. Zeaxanthin supplements also help in improving visual processing speed. This study was conducted by the University of Georgia Vision Sciences Laboratory. It measured how high levels of dietary zeaxanthin influences the processing speed (the speed at which your eyes and brain communicate for identifying process and for responding to any stimuli). The study found significant improvement in the reaction time of the participant. Apart from that, omega-3 fatty acid GLA is also beneficial for treating dry eye.


What to Eat?

Eating more fruits and vegetables help protect your eyes against disease. It is recommended to eat food rich in certain vitamins and minerals to keep your eyes healthy. These vitamins and minerals are known as antioxidants that keep our cells and tissues healthy.


Five great foods for your Eyes

14. Carrots

carrots for eye

Carrots and other orange-coloured fruits and vegetables are great for your eyes. They contain Beta-carotene which is a type of Vitamin A which protects your Retina and keeps your vision strong.

15. Green Leafy Veggies

From Spinach to Kale, all green leafy veggies are packed with Lutein and Zeaxanthin, the antioxidants that keep your eyes healthy by lowering the risk of developing macular degeneration and cataracts.
Lutein and zeaxanthin are antioxidants that are present in the eye. Having green leafy vegetables ensures that your eyes are never short of these antioxidants. These two components also help in reducing the risk of chronic eye diseases such as Cataract and AMD.


16. Eggs

If you throw away the yolk of the egg, then stop doing that. It’s because the yolk contains lutein and zeaxanthin and zinc. Having eggs thus helps reduce your risk of developing macular degeneration.


17. Citrus fruit and berries

Citrus fruits (lemon) and berries are powerhouses of vitamin C, an essential component that reduce the risk of developing conditions such as macular degeneration and cataract.


18. Almonds

Rich in vitamin E, Almonds slow down your risk of developing macular degeneration. Vitamin E, found in nuts, sweet potatoes and fortified cereals protect eye cells from damage by safeguarding them against harmful free radicals. These free radicals break down your healthy eye tissue. And when this happens, your risk of developing Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and cataract increases. More than 25 million people across the globe suffer from AMD.

19. Fatty fish

Fatty fishes such as Salmon, Tuna, Mackerel, and Trout are a rich source of DHA, a fatty acid found in your retina. Low levels of DHA can cause dry eye syndrome.


Take Care of your Eyes at the workplace

protect eyes at the workplace

Increased use of computers in the workplace has its hazards. People who work for long hours in front of the computer usually have a high level of physical health complaints that includes ocular discomfort and strain. Visual discomfort if ignored can result in serious eye-related problems.

People who work in front of PCs and laptops for long hours often suffer from a complex of eye related problem. This is known as “computer vision syndrome” or CVS. Eye problems that are caused by working a long time in front of the computer come under CVS. How can you avoid or prevent discomfort caused by CVS?

Here are the ways:

20. Have proper ergonomically designed chairs that are properly adjusted with your computer. This helps in decreasing the visual demands of the work you are doing and.

21. The display of your computer matters for your visual performance. Adjust the screen brightness and contrast to maintain a balance with room lighting. Lowering the brightness of the screen will reduce issues related to image stability, thus lessening the burden on your eyes.

22. Clean the computer screen regularly. Remove dust and dirt that affects the screen visibility.

23. The colour of the characters of your computer screen also affects the ease of visibility. The way your eyes focus on the screen is affected by the colours. Monochrome displays have been found to provide more legible images. This is highly recommended for people who are into word processing or data entry job. Computers with a negative contrast display (dark characters on a light background) or with positive contrast displays (light characters on a dark background) are always better than green or yellow, red, and blue.

24. Adjust your workstation to increase your comfort level. For instance, proper viewing distance and angles can help maintain your posture, eventually improving the way you view the computer screen. Determine the appropriate distance of the computer screen from your eyes. See if you can comfortably read the letters on the screen from that position. Usually, a viewing distance of 20 to 28 inches is usually recommended.

25. The direction of your gaze also affects the focusing ability of your eyes. It’s because when your eyes are placed much higher or below the optimal level of looking at the computer screen, the focusing mechanism of your eyes has to work hard. So, the direction of your gaze is important. Usually, a downward gaze of 15 degree helps in reducing the stress on your eyes. This means that the top of your computer screen should be below the horizontal eye level. And also, it should be tilted back slightly away from you.


Taking care of your eyes is beneficial for your overall health. People who have vision problems have greater risk of injuries due to falls
How can we Help You?

Disha Eye Hospital has a team of expert eye specialists dedicated to promoting healthy vision, thus improving your quality of life. We are committed to our promise of helping you in protecting your vision by providing comprehensive eye care services thus, assisting you in preventing any disability resulting from poor vision or vision loss.

For any queries related to eye health or for booking an appointment with our expert eye specialists, visit