Why You Should Go for Routine Eye Check Ups?


Why you should go for routine eye check ups?
Getting an annual eye exam is a crucial part of ensuring good eye health for yourself and your loved ones. The benefits of regular eye checkups go beyond preventing eye-related complication as it also helps in diagnosis underlying health conditions at early stages. This way, you can start early treatments and lower the risks of complications.

Consult best eye specialists in Kolkata

Book an appointment at Disha Eye Hospital to get a comprehensive eye exam from one of the best eye specialists in Kolkata. Visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment to book your appointment online.

Here are some of the important reasons for getting regular eye checkups:

1) Diagnosis of diabetes:

Blurry vision is usually one of the first warning signs of high blood sugar levels. When your body doesn’t produce enough insulin that helps break down sugar in the body, the blood vessels swell up. This swelling can cause the fluid to leak into the lens of your eye, making it difficult for eyes to focus. An early comprehensive eye exam conducted can not only lead to early detection of diabetes, but the eye doctor diabetes specialist can help you manage diabetes better.

2) Diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy:-

Diabetic retinopathy, as its name implies, is one of the complications of diabetes. As discussed above, diabetes causes damage to the blood vessels in the eyes, causing them to leak and swell. This can also cause the eyes to grow new, weak blood vessels which leak blood in the vitreous gel of the eye and lead to vision blurriness. The bleeding can form scars over time and detach the retina from the eye.

The only way to detect the presence of diabetic retinopathy during early stages is through a comprehensive eye exam. This is because the eye disease does not cause any symptom during the initial stages. The eye doctor may conduct various eye tests, including a dilated eye exam (for a detailed examination of the eyes), and optical coherence tomography (to examine retina) to confirm the presence of the eye complication.

3) Keep your children’s eyes healthy:-

There’s no doubt that good vision helps your children learn better at school. However, children these days spend longer time using phones, tablets, and laptops which can take a toll on their vision.

The best way to ensure your children have a good vision is by taking them to annual eye checkups. The eye doctor can diagnose if your children have a refractive error and can suggest treatments and visual aids such as eyeglasses and contact lens accordingly.

4) Diagnosis of glaucoma:-

Glaucoma, apart from being one of the leading causes of vision loss, is also one of the most common eye complications. Glaucoma occurs when the passages in the eyes clog and prevent eye fluids from draining. As a result, the eye fluids accumulate and increase intraocular pressure in the eyes. This. in turn, causes damage to the retina and optic nerve, and leads to vision impairment.

By visiting an eye doctor every year, you can get the eye complication detected at early stages. As such, you can start early treatment to lower the risks of complications. To detect the presence of glaucoma, an eye doctor may perform several eye tests, including tonometry (for measuring pressure in the eyes), ophthalmoscopy (to examine the topic nerve), and perimetry (to examine the field of vision).

5) Diagnosis of cataracts:-

Common in older adults, cataracts is one of the most serious eye complications and leads to permanent vision loss. The eye complication occurs when protein builds up in the lens of the eyes and start forming clumps. As such, the protein build-up clouds the lens and obstruct light from fully entering into the retina.

Apart from older age, diabetes, family history of the eye disease, and physical injury to the eyes can also increase the risk of cataracts. During your annual eye exam, your eye doctor can detect early cataract symptoms such as abnormal changes in the lens area, nearsightedness, double vision, and sensitivity to glare. To confirm the presence of the eye disease, your eye doctor may conduct the three important tests, including visual acuity test, retinal exam, and slit-lamp exam.

Consult best retina specialists in Kolkata

If you are having blurry vision or you are diabetic, consult best retina specialists in Kolkata at Disha Eye Hospital. Our retina specialists can help diagnose problems like diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma etc. At Disha Eye Hospital, we use industry-leading medical technologies and equipment to provide high-quality eye care. To learn more about our eye care services, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/.

10 Things to Know about Swollen Eyelids

Have you ever wondered why your eyelids look swollen? Well, it may be lack of sleep. But if it doesn’t go away in more than 48 hours then it’s a cause for concern. Eyes usually swell up when excess fluid accumulates near the area around the eyes. The swelling can happen in your upper or lower eyelid, much to your annoyance and discomfort. However, if the swelling remains longer than 48 hours, it’s time to see an eye doctor otherwise you run a risk of damaging your eyes. There are several factors that can cause your eyelids to swell. Here’s a low-down on why your eyelids swell up and what should you do to address the problem:

1. A symptom of an underlying condition: Swollen eyelids are more often than not a symptom of an underlying cause. They are themselves no problem but symptomatic of various eye conditions, like allergy or conjunctivitis. Often when you have swollen eyes, you experience irritation, sensitivity to light, and watery eyes. A combination of these symptoms suggests that there’s something severely wrong with your eyes.

2. Allergies can cause eyes to swell: Exposure to pollen, dust, and pet dander can cause your eyes to swell up. Sometimes expired eye cosmetics and contact lens solutions can also cause an adverse reaction, making your eyelids look puffy and making your eyes watery.

3. Conjunctivitis: One of the most common infections that cause your eyelids to swell up and turn red is conjunctivitis, a common infection caused by a virus, bacteria, allergens or other irritants. As the eyes turn pinkish red conjunctivitis is also called a pink eye.

4. Sty: A sty looks like a boil filled with pus or a pimple or a red bump. It usually forms just at the edge of the eyelids. A sty is caused by an infection of oil glands in the eyelid and one must see an eye doctor if your eye condition does improve in 48 hours or the redness and swelling extend beyond your eyelids. Till you have sty, you should avoid using any cosmetics. Also, avoid touching your eyes with dirty hands. Applying a warm washcloth can help relieve you of discomfort. However, seeing an eye doctor is a must.

Consult best eye hospital in Kolkata

If your eyes are swelling up, get yourself checked by best eye specialists at Disha Eye Hospital, one of the top eye hospitals in Kolkata. To explore our eye treatments that are available at affordable prices, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/.

5. Chalazion: A chalazion is quite like a sty but only slightly bigger. Unlike a sty, it forms away from the edge of the eyelid. Both children and adults can develop styes and chalazia. See an eye specialist if a bump appears near your eyelids.

6. Crying: If you are going through an emotionally tough phase in your life, a good crying session can help you de-stress. However, the puffy eyes that don’t make things easy for you. Applying a cold compress or cucumber slices can help reduce swelling.

7. Physical injury: Getting hit by a cricket ball or some other object can cause eyelids to swell up. In such a scenario, first, wash your eyes with water. Then rush to the nearest eye hospital. If you think something is stuck in the eye, don’t try to remove it yourself as it can damage your eyes.

8. Life-threatening diseases: Some life-threatening diseases like orbital cellulitis, Graves’ disease, and ocular herpes can also cause eyelids to swell up. Orbital cellulitis is a dangerous infection, that affects the eyelids, eyebrows, and cheeks. It is commonly found among children below 7 years of age but the incidence of orbital cellulitis has gone down because of the vaccination. Graves’ disease is an immune system disorder that affects the overall well-being of the patient. Besides puffy eyelids, one may experience fatigue, anxiety, and weight loss. Ocular herpes is a common eye infection that affects the cornea. It can cause blindness if not treated on time. The disease can often be confused with conjunctivitis. Thus, it is very important to get the right diagnosis.

9. Avoid swollen eyelids: Getting yourself tested for allergens can help you prevent your eyelids from getting swollen after reacting to allergens like pollens and dust. Either avoid or reduce the use of eye cosmetics. If you still have to, you should opt for hypoallergenic cosmetics that will not cause flare-ups.

10. Proper hygiene: Those of you who wear contact lenses when handling your lenses make sure your hands are not just washed but sanitised too. Follow proper hygiene process while putting in or taking off your lenses. If your contact lens solution is causing you trouble, ask your eye specialist to suggest you a new one rather than just changing brands without knowing what is causing the irritation.

Get comprehensive eye check up at Disha Eye Hospital

If you have swollen eyelids or you are experiencing any form of irritation in the eye, let the best eye specialists in Kolkata at Disha Eye Hospital diagnose your problems. At Disha Eye Hospital, we offer a range of ophthalmic services like LASIK and refractive surgeries and cataract surgery. Know more about services here http://www.dishaeye.org/.

Cataract Facts: You Must Know Them for an Effective Treatment

Cataract facts: You must know them for an effective treatment

After going through the facts listed below, you’ll have more understanding of the eye complications related to cataract and learn about ways to get it properly treated.

1. There’s not just one but different types of cataracts.

The different types of cataracts include:

Age-related: the type of cataract which is common amongst older people.

Traumatic: the type of cataract that form after an eye injury.

Congenital: the type of cataract that is common in newborn babies. Poor development in the womb, injury, and infection are some of the common causes.

Secondary: the type of cataract that results from other medical conditions like diabetes and other factors such as radiation and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure.

2. Common symptoms of cataracts:-

Some of the common symptoms of cataracts include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Seeing halo around lights
  • Double vision
  • Impaired distance vision
  • Poor night vision
  • Glare

3. Symptoms not typical of cataracts:-

It’s common to misidentify symptoms and think that you have cataracts. But in reality, you might have some other vision problems. This can result in the delay in diagnosis or wrong self-care measures. Symptoms that are unlikely to be associated with cataracts include:

  • Eye discharge
  • Eye redness
  • Eye irritation
  • Excess mucus
  • Eye pain
  • Tearing

4. Advanced age is one of the most important risk factors:-

People who are aged 60 and above are at the highest risk of developing cataracts. With age, the protein fibres in the eyes form clumps and start clouding lens, affecting vision.

5. Eye exam is the go-to diagnosis procedure for doctors:-

Eye doctors conduct a comprehensive eye exam to get a proper diagnosis of the eye condition. The eye exam involves a thorough check of the lens; the doctors do this by dilating the pupils.

6. Can cataracts be prevented?

There’s no proven way to prevent cataracts. However, since the eye condition is common in older adults, it’s crucial to have an annual eye exam for early diagnosis and treatment.

7. You can lower your risk of cataracts:-

Avoiding risks factors such as prolonged exposure to UV rays, smoking, and excessive drinking can help you lower your risk of cataracts.

8. Cataract does not spread from one eye to the other:

There’s a common misconception according to which cataracts can spread from one eye to the other.

9. Your sunglass can be your best friend in lowering cataract risk:-

Choose a pair of sunglasses that has UV protection and wear it whenever you spend time outdoors, in the sunlight.

10. The single-best treatment for cataracts:-

Cataract Surgery is the most effective way to treat the eye condition. The eye surgery involves removal of the natural, clouded lens and replacing them with an artificial one.

11. There may be chances of your refractive error improving after cataract surgery:-

Prior to conducting the surgery, the surgeon will conduct a refraction test to choose an intraocular lens of the right power to give you the best possible vision.

Want to do cataract surgery? Visit Disha Eye Hospital and consult our experienced eye specialists

Do you have cataract? Or are you concerned about your loved one who’s suffering from the eye condition? Get a quality treatment for cataract at Disha Eye Hospital. Our eye specialists can conduct a precise diagnosis and conduct a surgery.

At Disha Eye Hospital, we are committed to providing the best eye care solutions at affordable rates. Learn more about our cataract treatment service at a http://www.dishaeye.org/cataract

What are the Symptoms of Cataracts?

What are the Symptoms of Cataracts?

Identifying the symptoms of cataracts can help you alter your lifestyle and lower the risks of worsening of the eye disease. Diagnosis of symptoms at early stages can be more helpful in treating the eye condition

Below are the common symptoms of cataracts:

1) Vision blurriness:-

Cataracts may have a little effect on your vision during early stages. As the eye disease gradually progresses, you may start to experience blurriness in vision. The symptom can worsen over time, causing your vision to become cloudy.  Consult with the best eye hospital in West Bengal for treating the Cataracts.

2) Visible bulges, bumps in or around the pupil, cornea:-

As cataracts progress, they become visible in and around the pupil and cornea. In most cases, cataracts appear milky white and can cover the entire pupil and cornea area.

3) Dim vision:-

Cataracts can restrict the amount of light that enters the eye as they worsen. This can, in turn, result in the dimming of vision which leads to a poor quality of life.

4) Seeing small spots, dots:-

As cataracts progress, you may notice small spots or dots in your peripheral vision. These small spots can be similar to floaters. Not only can they impair vision but also cause annoyance.

5) Seeing halos around light sources:-

The clouding of the lens involved in the progression of cataracts can result in diffraction of light entering the eyes. As a result, you may see halos around light sources. This symptom can make it challenging for you to drive, especially during nighttime.

6) Sensitivity to light:-

Light sensitivity is commonly experienced by almost all people who suffer from cataract. People who have posterior subcapsular cataracts may experience pain due to the glare of bright lights.

7) Poor night vision:-

One of the serious implications of worsening of cataracts is low night vision. As cataracts advance, they darken with a brown or yellow tinge which lower night vision and make certain nighttime activities such as walking and driving more difficult.

8) Double vision:-

Diffraction of light from the lens can lead to double vision; i.e. seeing two or more images of a single object. This can cause difficulty in doing precision work such as reading, writing, driving, etc.

9) Yellowing of vision:-

The clumps of protein that cloud the lens can turn darker into yellowish or brownish as cataracts worsen. As a result, the light entering the eyes can have a yellow tint and it can make it difficult for you to tell the difference between colours.

10) Frequent changes in eyeglass and contact lens prescription:-

As cataracts can alter the positioning of the lens or the way light enters through, it is likely that your visual acuity will get affected. In other words, you may have to frequently change your eyeglass or contact lens prescription to correct bad vision.

Get proper treatment of cataract at Disha Eye Hospital – one of the best eye hospitals in Kolkata:-

Do you or your loved ones suffer from cataract? Or are you experiencing changes in vision which you think might be early symptoms? If yes, then get your or your loved ones’ eyes diagnosed and properly treated.

Our team of eye specialists at Disha Eye Hospital are dedicated to improving eye health of patients. Be it cataract or other serious eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or corneal diseases, we offer a wide range of quality eye treatment.

At Disha Eye Hospital, we believe quality eye treatment doesn’t have to come at high prices. The eye treatments we provide are affordable. This helps us improve the lives of people from all walks of life. Learn more about our cataract treatment at http://www.dishaeye.org/cataract.

Ways to Protect Your Eyes This Summer

Ways to Protect Your Eyes This Summer

Here are a few ways to keep your eyes safe this summer:

1. Don’t forget your shades:-

The sunlight reflecting off the water, reflective surfaces, and sand into your eyes, can result in photokeratitis. This is a painful condition and is caused when the UV rays of the sun not only burns your skin but also burns the surface of your eye. It causes redness, pain, blurriness and may even cause temporary blindness are some of the symptoms of this condition. Wear sunglasses with 100% UV protection for avoiding photokeratitis.

Even if you are wearing sunglasses, wear a hat to protect your eyelids and eyes. Sunglasses have gaps on the sides and top. The sun rays may reach your eyes through the gaps. Wearing a hat will help reduce the exposure.

2. Avoid getting a Swimmer’s Eye:-

Pools – the name sounds so refreshing and brings a feeling of relief during hot summer days. But the pool water can be really tough on your eyes. The chemicals that are used for keeping the water clean affect the tear film in your eyes. As a result, you suffer from redness and blurry vision. Wear swimming goggles to protect your eyes. If the pool water gets into your eyes, splash your eyes with fresh water once you get out of the pool.

3. Protect your eyes from dryness:-

Spending time outside during summers can be tough for your eyes. As the wind is hot and dry and can cause a common issue called Dry Eyes. The hot and dry weather affect the tear film in your eyes and make them dry. Protect your eyes by wearing wrap-around glasses. Use artificial tears to keep your eyes moist. If you are suffering from dry eye consult the eye specialist in south Kolkata.

4. Be Safe from Home/DIY Projects:-

Protecting your eyes doesn’t only mean wearing sunglasses. Take care of them while doing DIY projects at home. Buy professional quality goggles to avoid injury while gardening. In case anything hits your eyes, put some ice on the affected eyes and immediately rush to the doctor.

5. Wash Your Hands:-

Do this before touching your eyes. Avoid rubbing or touching your eyes while you are out. In case you wear contact lenses, take care. Dirty hands may cause eye infections.

6. Eat healthily and Stay Hydrated:-

Fruits and veggies contain lutein and zeaxanthin. These are antioxidants that can help in resisting cataract, and macular degeneration. Additionally, you get easily dehydrated during summers. And this can affect your eyes. Serious dehydration makes it tough for the eyes to produce tears and as a result, you may suffer from dry eye symptoms and other vision issues. Drink plenty of water. This helps in reversing the negative effects of dehydration.

Protect your eyes. Visit professional and experienced eye specialists in Kolkata at Disha Eye Hospital:-

Apart from taking these precautions for protecting your eyes during summers, it’s important that you regularly visit your eye doctor. Do not ignore any eye issue (even the smallest one).

At Disha, our experts take the utmost care to protect your vision. We have the most sophisticated technology to provide you with the best eye care.

To get in touch with our eye specialists across West Bengal, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment

8 Questions on Cataract Surgery

8 Questions on Cataract Surgery

Cataracts are one of the leading causes of vision loss all over the world. Fortunately with, advances in medical science, the eye disease can be treated through a specialised surgery known as cataract surgery.

Although cataract surgery is the sole treatment option for the eye disease, there are confusions and misconceptions about it. Here, we seek to clarify them by these 8 commonly asked questions:

1)  How is cataract surgery performed?

Before the surgery day, the doctor will give you medicines to relax you and numb your eyes. The doctor uses a local anaesthetic which makes the surgery virtually painless. The first part of the surgery involves removing the clouded lens. To do this, the surgeon, with the help of precision tools, makes a small incision in the eye to remove the natural lens. The surgeon will use the same incision to place the artificial (intraocular) lens. To get the best cataract surgery in Kolkata, contact Disha – Best Eye Hospital in West Bengal.

2) What is the success rate of cataract surgery?

Cataract surgeries have a high success rate. In fact, cataract surgeries are one of the most successful surgeries performed the world over. It’s because of the high success rate of cataract surgery that it is chosen as the sole treatment option for cataracts.

3) How do I determine whether cataract surgery will benefit me?

There are several ways how you can benefit from a cataract surgery. First, the eye surgery is a quick procedure and can be completed within 2 hours. Plus, you don’t have to get admitted to the hospital as it’s required with other surgeries.

By undergoing a cataract surgery, not only is your eye disease treated but you also have your vision corrected. Lastly, the recovery period for a cataract surgery is quite short. It may take you as less as a week to fully recover.

4) Are there any side effects of a cataract surgery? 

After the surgery, you may experience itchiness, slight discomfort, and redness. But these effects only last for a couple of hours and eventually subside. Your eye doctor may suggest you tips to fully take care of the operated eye(s) post-surgery.

5) What is phaco?

Phaco, or Phacolemulsification is a technique used during a cataract surgery. In this technique, the eye surgeon makes a small incision to insert a tiny ultrasonic probe. The doctor uses the probe to break cataracts into tiny pieces. The next step involves removing the tiny pieces using a suction. After the cataracts are completely removed, the doctor inserts the intraocular lens.

6) What is an intraocular lens?

Intraocular lens is a small convex-shaped lens and is harmless to the eyes. Apart from being an alternative to the natural, clouded lens, intraocular lens also helps correct vision. Once the intraocular lens is placed during the cataract surgery, it does not move and remains in the eye permanently. There are several types of intraocular lens and your eye doctor can choose the best lens for you.

7) Is it true that I have to wait for my cataract to become ripe in order to undergo a cataract surgery?

Previous cataract removal methods involved heavy sedation and making large incisions so that the entire affected lens could be wholly removed from the capsular bag. As such, ripe cataracts would make the removal process easier.

But with technological advancements, modern-day cataract surgeries require a small incision and minimal sedation as the lens is suctioned out. In other words, you don’t have to wait for your cataracts to become ripe for undergoing a cataract surgery.

8) Where can I opt for a safe and quality cataract surgery in West Bengal?

If you or someone in your family is planning to undergo a cataract surgery, then our advice would be to get a precise diagnosis at Disha Eye Hospital, one of the best eye hospitals in West Bengal.

After a comprehensive diagnosis, our eye specialists will plan the surgery based on your overall eye health. At Disha Eye Hospital, we use advanced cataract surgery techniques such as Phacoemulsification to ensure that patients who choose us with trust get the best and safest treatment.

We believe quality eye treatments don’t have to come at higher prices. At Disha, we are aimed at offering the best eye treatments at affordable prices. For more information about our cataract treatment, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/cataract

Common Eye Problems that Aged Ones Suffer From

You will notice a change in your vision once you are in your 40s. You might notice that you are having a tough time seeing distant or nearby objects, reading books, or having trouble adjusting to the glare. These problems worsen with age.

Just like grey hairs and wrinkles on your skin indicate ageing, your eyes too are affected by age and therefore show symptoms of the ageing process. Some of these changes are normal and are age-related developments.

However, certain conditions may indicate the vision-threatening condition. And this is the reason why it’s important to visit an ophthalmologist regularly for monitoring your eye health and to ensure an early diagnosis and timely treatment.

The eye undergoes a number of changes with age. The eye lens begins to stiffen. This makes focusing on close objects tough. The eye lens also becomes denser and makes seeing in dim light harder. Even the pupil reacts slowly to the changes in light. You will also notice that the lens becomes yellow and changes the way you perceive colours. With age, the number of nerve cells in your eyes decreases. This impairs the depth perception. Moreover, your eyes produce less fluid, making them dry.
These changes in your eyes often contribute to serious eye conditions. This includes:

1. Presbyopia

All over the world, about 1.3 billion people have this condition (as of 2011) and it is estimated that by 2020, the number will reach 2.1 billion. The condition involves the eyes to lose the ability to focus light properly.

It’s impossible to prevent presbyopia, even if you have maintained eye health all your life. If you are nearsighted, you will see that your near vision is hazy even when you are wearing your usual glasses and lenses.


If you have presbyopia, you will notice that:

  • You have to hold your books and smartphone far away from your eyes to see clearly.
  • Even if you can see well up close, Presbyopia will cause eye strain, headaches, and fatigues. You will notice that near vision tasks become more tiring.


This is an age-related process. It is believed that it is caused by the gradual thickening of the lens and due to the loss of flexibility of the eye’s natural lens. The age-related changes occur mainly within the protein in the eye lens making the eye lens hard and inflexible with time. Age-related changes also occur in the muscle fibres surrounding the eye lens. As elasticity diminishes, the eye has a tough time focusing up close.

Treating Presbyopia

The most popular treatment for Presbyopia is using glasses with Progressive Lens. This is a common solution for people over 40. Another option is using bifocal lenses. However, this is less popular as it offers a limited range of vision. The doctor may also prescribe reading glasses. Unlike bifocals and progressive lenses, you cannot wear reading glasses all day long. These are worn only when you need to see smaller prints.

2. Dry Eyes

This is a condition where your eyes do not get enough lubrication due to an insufficient amount of tears. This is a very common and chronic problem, especially in older adults.


  • Age: Dry eyes are a part of the ageing process. Most of the people who are over 65 years experience dry eyes.
  • Gender: Women are more prone to this condition. It’s due to the hormonal changes that occur in them after pregnancy, menopause, and/or use of oral contraceptives.
  • Medications: Certain medicines including medicines for blood pressure, antihistamines, antidepressants, and decongestants may affect tear production, https://www.cdhfinechemical.com/cdh_data/ambien-zolpidem/.
  • Medical conditions: If you have diabetes, thyroid issues, and rheumatoid arthritis, you are more likely to have dry eyes. Also, conditions such as blepharitis, inflammation of the eye surfaces, can cause dry eyes.
  • Environmental conditions: Excessive exposure to dry climate, wind, and smoke increase tear evaporation causing dry eyes. Often, staring at the computer screen for a sustained period of time makes the eyes dry.


Treatment options include:

1. Lubricant eye treatments

If you have mild to moderate level of dry eye syndrome, the doctor usually treats this condition using ointments, eye drops, and gels.

2. Preservative-free drops

Many eye drops contain preservatives to prevent bacterial growth in the bottle. However, if you need to use the drops more than six times a day, it’s better to choose preservative-free eye drops.

3. Special tear eye drops

Many eye drops that restore the oily part of the tear film and prevent evaporation are also used widely. These medications include liposomal sprays.

4. Anti-inflammatory medicines

Anti-inflammatory medicines such as Corticosteroids can be used as ointments and eye drops in severe cases.

5. Serum eye drops

These are needed in very rare cases where all other options have failed.

3. Cataract

This is the clouding of the natural eye lens that makes your vision blurry and hazy.


The common symptoms of Cataract include:

  • Cloudy or blurry vision
  • Colours appearing faded
  • Light sensitivity. You may also see a halo around lights.
  • Poor night vision
  • Double vision (This happens when the cataract gets larger.)


The eye lenses lie just behind the iris and the pupil. It is mainly composed of water and protein. As you age, the protein may clump together forming a cloud in a small area of the lens. This is called a cataract. Diabetes and smoking are several causes of cataract. It may be also caused by the changes in the protein due to years of wear and tear of the eye lens.


You have to undergo a Cataract surgery for removing cataracts from the eyes.

4. Glaucoma

This is a condition that damages the eye’s optic nerve. It gets worse with time. Glaucoma is caused by the pressure build-up inside your eye.
Most of the people do not show early symptoms or pain. A comprehensive eye examination is the only way to diagnose glaucoma.


Normally, the fluid in your eye (also known as aqueous humour), flows out of your eye through a channel. When this channel is blocked, the liquid accumulates in your eyes increasing the pressure. That’s what causes glaucoma. The reason for the blockage is not known but experts believe that this condition can be inherited.


Your doctor may recommend prescription eye drops, microsurgery, or laser surgery depending on the condition. The eye drops may either reduce the fluid build-up or increase its flow.

5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a problem that affects your retina. It is caused when the macula, the central part of your retina is damaged. AMD affects your central vision.


The first sign that you may notice is a sudden or a gradual change in your vision. Straight lines may appear distorted to you. The situation might escalate quickly causing a dramatic loss of central vision.

Other symptoms may include:

  • Dark areas in your line of vision or whiteout appearing in your central vision
  • In rare cases, you may also notice a change in colour perception


The exact cause of AMD is not yet clear but this condition develops as you get old.


There’s no cure for AMD, however, treatment will slow down the disease and prevent severe vision loss. Treatment options include:

Anti-angiogenic drugs: This medicine is injected into your eyes and is used for stopping the formation of new blood vessels. This also blocks the leakage from the abnormal blood vessels.

Laser therapy: Doctor may also recommend treating your condition with high-energy laser light. This often destroys abnormal blood vessels that are growing actively.

Photodynamic laser therapy: This is a two-step treatment using a light-sensitive drug for damaging the abnormal blood vessels.

Submacular surgery: In this surgery, the surgeon removes the scar tissue, abnormal blood vessels, and blood.

Retinal translocation: In this procedure, the doctor destroys the abnormal blood vessels in your eye that are located just under the centre of the macula. This is a spot where the doctors cannot reach safely using a laser beam.

6. Diabetic Retinopathy

People who have diabetes can get this condition. Diabetic Retinopathy is caused when high sugar levels in your body damage the blood vessels in your retina. These blood vessels often swell and leak. Or they may get blocked completely. Sometimes abnormal blood vessels also grow on your retina. All of these changes can cause vision loss.


You can notice symptoms only when the disease advances. Typical symptoms include:

  • Sudden changes in vision
  • Hazy vision
  • Floaters in your vision
  • Double vision
  • Pain in the eye


Diabetic retinopathy is caused due to high blood glucose levels over a period of time. High sugar levels weaken and damage the blood vessels in the retina. This causes haemorrhages and retinal swelling. This also blocks the flow of oxygen to the retina, causing abnormal growth of blood vessels. Controlling your blood sugar levels lowers your risk of getting retinopathy.


Diabetic retinopathy affects your vision, Treatment options include:

  • Laser treatment: This is for treating the growth of new blood vessels in the retina in cases of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Laser treatment is also used for stabilising some cases of maculopathy.
  • Eye injections: The doctor may administer eye injections for treating severe maculopathy.
  • Eye surgery: This surgery is done for removing scar tissue or from the eye. Surgery is only done if laser treatment isn’t possible due to the advanced stage of retinopathy.

7. Arcus Senilis

This is an age-related eye issue where you will see grey, white, or blue ring in the margin of the cornea (peripheral corneal opacity), or white ring in front of the periphery of the iris.

It is present in infants at birth but gradually, it fades; however, these rings can be commonly seen in the eyes of the elderly. Arcus senilis is generally harmless, although it can sometimes be a sign of high cholesterol in people under 45 years of age.


  • A white, grey, or blue circle or arc around the cornea of the eye.
  • The circle or arc will have a sharp outer border but a blurred inner border.
  • If someone has an arc, the lines could grow to form a complete circle in front of the iris.


Arcus senilis is a condition affecting only older adults. It occurs due to fat deposits or a lipid that forms in the outer part of the cornea. These fat deposits in your blood come from the fatty foods in your diet. The liver also produces fat.

Cholesterol is a type of fat that’s found in the blood. However, if Arcus Senilis occurs, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have high cholesterol. The blood vessels in your eyes widen with age. When you age, your blood vessels allow cholesterol build-up in your eye. In case Arcus Senilis occurs in people under 40, the doctor will do tests for checking high cholesterol.


There is no cure for arcus senilis. Once you get it, it won’t disappear. If you got this condition due to high cholesterol, the doctor may recommend a diet low in saturated fats. Exercise and quitting smoking may also help.

Medicines that are used for lowering cholesterol levels include:

  • Statin drugs: These medicines block a particular substance that the liver uses for making cholesterol. The doctor may prescribe medicines such as pravastatin (Pravachol), atorvastatin (Lipitor), lovastatin, and fluvastatin.
  • Resins for binding Bile acid: These resins prompt your liver to use the cholesterol for producing more bile acids. This lowers the amount of cholesterol in your blood. The doctor may prescribe cholestyramine, colestipol, and colesevelam.
  • Inhibitors for Cholesterol absorption: These helps in reducing the amount of cholesterol that is absorbed by your body. The doctor may prescribe ezetimibe to you.

Cataract Surgery in Kolkata

Do not let cataracts affect your vision and your quality of life. Cataract surgery costs in Kolkata are quite reasonable. If you are looking for a good hospital for the surgery, get in touch with Disha Eye Hospital today.

Cataract Surgery Do’s and Don’ts

Cataract surgery in Kolkata

Being a myopic since childhood, Mr Bose started experiencing vision problems for the past few months. At 65, he thought he might need to change his glasses and need a new prescription. But gradually, his eyesight became so blurry that he didn’t have clear vision even when looking across the room.

A visit to the eye specialist revealed that he had a cataract in both the eyes. The left eye needed immediate operation while the cataract in the right eye was still at its initial stage. The doctor immediately recommended surgery for cataract removal on the left eye. The operation didn’t take much time but Mr Bose was worried about the recovery process. Since it was a matter of his vision and he didn’t want to take any risk.

The recovery process for cataract is short and usually do not cause any major issues as long as you don’t have any other serious eye issues. In most of the cases, the patients experience improved vision shortly after the surgery.

Usually, a cataract surgery does not take more than 10 minutes. Immediately after the surgery, you will need to rest for about half an hour as it takes a bit time to recover from the effect of anaesthesia.

Almost everyone who has undergone cataract surgery is provided with Intraocular Lens (IOL). These lenses help in focusing the light properly on the retina. This lens becomes a part of your eye permanently and needs no additional care.

There is a wide range of IOLs available and it’s the eye specialist who decides which lens will work the best for you. However, before the surgery, the eye specialist usually discusses the options with you and then decides which lens will best suit your lifestyle.

IOLs are made of various materials such as silicone, acrylic or plastic. Some IOLs can block UV rays. Some lenses are made of rigid plastic. These plastic lenses are usually implanted through an incision which needs stitches for closing them. However, some IOLs are extremely flexible and need a small incision that requires just a few or no sutures at all. During the surgery, the eye surgeon folds such lenses and put them into the empty capsule, replaces the natural eye lens. Once inside, the folded IOL unfolds and takes the empty place.

Types of IOLs include:

  • Fixed-focus monofocal: This lens has single focus strength for distance vision. For precision activities such as reading, you will need to use reading glasses.
  • Accommodating-focus monofocal: This lens has a single focusing strength but they can adjust with the movement of the eye muscle and can shift focus as needed.
  • Multifocal: This type of lens is similar to progressive lenses or bifocal glasses. The lens has multiple focusing strengths that allow near, medium, and far vision.
  • Toric Lenses: This lens is mainly used for correcting astigmatism.

What to Expect During the Surgery?

Cataract surgery usually doesn’t take much time to perform. It takes less than an hour for the surgery. The doctor first puts eye drops in your eye for dilating the pupil. You will be given local anaesthetics for numbing the area. The doctor may even give you a sedative to help you relax. If you’re given a sedative, you will remain awake throughout the procedure but a bit groggy.

The doctor will then remove the clouded lens, and replace it with a clear artificial lens. In some cases, the cataract is also removed without implanting an IOL.

The surgical processes involved in Cataract surgery include:

  • Using ultrasound probe: Often, an ultrasound probe is used for breaking and removing the lens. The process is usually called Phacoemulsification. Here, the surgeon makes a small incision in the cornea. He/she will insert a thin needle-like probe into the lens where the cataract has formed. The probe transmits ultrasound waves for breaking the cataract. Using the probe, the doctor suctions out the broken lens fragments. The lens capsule is left intact. It is here where the artificial lens rests. The doctor may or may not put stitches for closing the small incision in the cornea after completing the process.
  • Using advanced laser technique: Laser-assisted cataract surgery is another technique for cataract removal. The surgeon uses a laser for making incisions and then softens the cataract before removal.
  • Extracapsular Cataract Extraction: This is a less frequent process where the doctor removes the lens without breaking it. This needs a larger incision than that is made for phacoemulsification. Through this incision, the surgeon removes the front capsule of the lens with the surgical tools along with the cloudy part of the lens containing the cataract. The back capsule of the lens is left in place for holding the artificial lens. This procedure is only performed when you have certain eye complications. The incisions are stitched up after the surgery.

After Cataract Surgery

After cataract surgery, you will see that your vision has started to improve within a few days. Don’t be alarmed if you see that your vision is blurry or wavy. It’s normal for the eyes to adjust to the new vision. It takes time to heal and then adjust. After that, you will be able to see clearly. The colours will appear brighter as you are seeing through a new lens after the surgery. A cataract is usually brownish or yellowish tinted and that’s why you see muted colours.

You need to follow up with your eye doctor a day or two after the surgery. Visit him or her as per the schedule. This is important as the doctor needs to monitor your healing process.

Do not be sceptical if your eye feels itchy. It’s absolutely normal to feel mild discomfort along with itching for a few days post-surgery. Avoid touching your eye. You may even develop bloodshot eyes. Don’t worry. This happens as the blood vessels in the eye surface (the white part) are temporarily damaged due to the surgery. It takes a few days for the vessels to heal completely. As your eye heals, you will see that the redness has vanished within a few days.

If, before the surgery, the doctor has given you an injection of anaesthesia just in the lower portion of your eye, you will also notice a small bruise that’s similar to black eye. This also fades within a few days.

You may need to wear an eye patch after the surgery. The doctor might suggest you wear it for a few days after the surgery. You have to wear it even when you sleep. This is just to make sure that you do not accidentally touch the eye.

The doctor usually prescribes eye drops or any other medication for preventing infection, reducing inflammation, and for controlling the eye pressure, http://www.papsociety.org/prednisone/. Sometimes, he or she may inject steroid medications into the eye during the surgery so as to avoid inflammation.

Your eyes might feel dry or you may experience scratchiness after the surgery. These sensations go away as your eyes heal unless you already have dry eyes prior to the surgery. After a couple of weeks, most of the problems subside. In majority of the cases, complete healing occurs within 8 weeks. In case you experience these symptoms, contact your doctor immediately:

  • Vision loss
  • A persisting pain despite using over-the-counter medications
  • Increased redness in the eye
  • Light flashes
  • Multiple floaters in the line of vision

Usually, after cataract surgery, you have to wear glasses, at least for some time. Your doctor will examine the eye and let you know whether they have healed enough to get a final prescription for glasses or not. This is usually between one and three months after surgery.

If you have cataracts in both eyes, the doctor never operates on both the eyes at the same time. You will undergo the second surgery only after the first eye has healed completely.

Ensure the Best Recovery: Dos and Don’ts during the Recovery Period

You will be surprised to see that you are able to resume normal activities just a day after the surgery. However, everyone should observe a few precautions during the first week after the surgery. This is a must for avoiding any infection or to avoid sustaining an injury to the eye while it heals.

The doctor will give you an antibiotic eye drop for preventing infection and anti-inflammatory eye drop to reduce any internal inflammation. Depending on the post-operative inflammation that you have, you may need to apply the drops for a few weeks or about a month. Ensure that you are applying the drops as recommended by the doctor. The doctor may also prescribe oral painkillers (acetaminophen), if necessary.

Here are a few dos and don’ts that will ensure the best recovery:


  1. Apply the eye drops as per the schedule provided by the ophthalmologist. In any case, you have to strictly adhere to the routine provided by the doctor. Eye drop needs to be applied daily for a few weeks after the surgery.
  2. You may resume light day-to-day activities such as watching TV, reading, writing and walking. Always keep your physical activities light.
  3. Wear your protective eye cover always, even when you are sleeping. And always sleep on the side that hasn’t been operated on.
  4. When taking a shower, keep your eyes closed. Make sure that water or soap doesn’t enter your eyes.
  5. On the day of surgery, as well as the next day after the surgery, it is important that you rest and relax properly. This promotes healing.
  6. After the surgery, the doctor will provide you with a protective shield, and you have to wear it on your operated eye until the doctor says that your eyes are fit enough to go without the shield. The doctor will also give you special eye shades in case you have to go out.


  1. Never rub your eye or apply anything to your eyes, even water. This will increase the chance of infection.
  2. Immediately after the surgery, avoid bending. This prevents putting extra pressure on your eye.
  3. Never swim or use a hot tub, at least for two weeks after the surgery. Even a small drop of water makes your eyes vulnerable to infection.
  4. Do not drive for 24 hours after cataract surgery.
  5. Do not indulge in any strenuous activity, such as strenuous exercise, lifting weights etc. This should be followed for at least the first week following the surgery. Your eyes need about a month to fully recover. So it’s safe to avoid strenuous activity during this time.
  6. Do not wear any eye makeup until your ophthalmologist allows.
  7. Avoid any activity that exposes your eyes to dirt or dust. Patients who stay in dry and dusty environment should avoid going outdoors. When going out, you must wear a special protective eyewear provided by the doctor. Dust and sand particles may scratch your eye surface making the eye prone to infection.
  8. Be careful when walking around after surgery. Try not to bump into doors or any other objects.

Usually, after a cataract surgery, you should be able to perform these activities within a few hours:

  • Working on a computer
  • Watching TV (not for long hours)
  • Showering

Following the doctor’s suggestion is the best way to ensure a fast recovery. Follow the post-operative instructions as provided by your doctor as he or she is the best person to evaluate your condition and suggest the best possible way. The points discussed here is a handy guide to give you an overview of the things that you should follow during your recovery process.

Cataract surgery in Kolkata

Blurry vision? Do not ignore because it might be a symptom of cataract. Consult an eye specialist immediately. If you are looking for a good hospital where you can undergo cataract surgery or want to know cataract surgery cost in Kolkata, get in touch with us today at http://www.dishaeye.org/contact-us.

Eye Health Tips for Elderly

Cataract Surgery in Kolkata

With age your vision changes. Once you are in your 60s, you will notice changes in your vision that might even affect your day-to-day works. While this is normal but, the risk rate continues to increase with age, especially, if you have certain health conditions or eye conditions. However, when you know what to expect from your eyes as you age and when to seek help from eye experts, you can protect your vision for longer.

How your vision changes with Age?

Your vision starts to change as you get into your mid-40s. You may start to have problems seeing objects at close distances clearly. This is especially when you are reading something or working on the computer. This is the most common problem that adults develop as you get older. This is normal. It happens because your eye’s focusing ability is affected. This condition is known as presbyopia and it continues to progress with time.

You will notice that

  • Your eyes now take longer to focus and adjust or cannot adjust very well if you get into a poorly-lit area from a well-lit area or vice versa.
  • This problem in adjusting to dark and light is problematic if you drive. This becomes difficult if you have any eye condition that affects your peripheral vision or increase your sensitivity to light or glare. So, it’s better to avoid driving as you get older.
  • It has become tough for you to distinguish images from their background even if there are subtle gradations of tone. This condition is known as loss of “contrast sensitivity.”
  • You need more light to see clearly. You may notice that close-up tasks such as working on a laptop and reading are easier in areas with bright light. Also, you may see that printed materials appear less clear now. This happens because the lens of your eye loses its flexibility with time.
  • There are changes in your colour perception and it has become difficult for you to distinguish between different shades of colour. Even, the clear lens located inside your eye may start to discolour.
  • Your tear production has diminished. With age, the tear glands present in your eyes produce fewer tears. Women who are undergoing hormone changes with age (particularly post-menopausal women) are more likely to experience this. As a result, your eyes may feel irritated and dry. An adequate amount of tears is important for keeping your eyes healthy and for maintaining a clear vision.

As you age, you may initially see that holding reading materials at a distance is helping you in seeing them clearly. Or removing your glasses is helping you in seeing better up close. If you are using contact lenses or prescription glasses for near or distant vision, then these changes in your near vision can be easily corrected by using multifocal or bifocal lenses. Fortunately, if you have presbyopia, you have multiple options for improving your vision.

Source: https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/good-vision-throughout-life/adult-vision-19-to-40-years-of-age/adult-vision-41-to-60-years-of-age

The “rod” cells in the eye that tend to degrade with age compared to the “cone” cells that help in visual acuity and colour vision. A number of environmental factors such a nutrition, excessive exposure to sun, and smoking affect the health and function of the rod cells.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/tips-prevention/seniors-vision-develop

Common Eye Problems that comes with Age

With age, you become vulnerable to a number of eye conditions. This includes:

1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

In this condition, the central part of the tissue lining the retina, known as Macula, gets damaged. The Macula helps in your central vision and as a result, tasks such as reading fine print become difficult. However, this doesn’t affect the peripheral or side vision. AMD is of two types.
The Dry type of AMD affects the majority of people. This condition is marked by a subtle and gradual loss of vision as the cells in the retina break down. For instance, straight lines may appear wavy to you or you may see just parts of letters. The dry type of AMD often advances into the wet type of AMD.

Symptoms of the Dry type of AMD include:

  • Hazy vision
  • You may need extra light or having vision issues when switching from bright to low light
  • You may have difficulty in reading or recognizing people’s faces
  • Colours will appear less vivid

The wet type of AMD is much severe and causes sudden loss of central vision. This happens as blood starts leaking from the blood vessels growing in or under your retina. As a result, you may see large dark spots in the centre of your vision field. If you see blind spots, then immediately consult an eye specialist.
Symptoms of wet type of AMD also include:

  • Distorted vision
  • The Same object appears different size for each eye
  • Colours become less vivid or you see same colour differently in each eye

You are more likely to develop AMD if you smoke or if you are obese or have a family history of AMD. Other risk factors include lack of essential nutrients, excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays.
There is no cure for AMD; however, there are ways to slow its progression, especially the wet macular degeneration. These are:

  • Anti-VEGF treatment that helps in limiting the growth of new blood vessels in your eyes.
  • Thermal laser treatment. This uses heat for slowing down the progression of the disease.
  • Photodynamic therapy. This is used for destroying the leaking blood vessels in the eye.

2. Glaucoma

This is a group of eye diseases resulting in vision loss. The increased pressure in your eye or poor circulation damages the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images from the eye to the brain, helping in your vision.

Glaucoma develops slowly and usually doesn’t have any clear early symptom. You may not realise that you have it until you start losing your vision. Glaucoma can cause blindness. Age is one risk factor of Glaucoma. Other risk factors include:

  • a family history of glaucoma
  • If you have Hispanic or African ancestry
  • If you are high degree myopic or hyperopic
  • Past history of eye injury
  • Low blood pressure or high eye pressure
  • Diabetes

The doctor may suggest laser treatment, surgery or medications for treating Glaucoma.

3. Cataracts.

This is a condition where the lens of your eyes become cloudy and your vision becomes blurry. Cataract is a common problem that comes with ageing.

Symptoms often develop slowly and usually include:

  • Dim, cloudy and hazy vision. You may feel like looking through an extremely dirty windshield
  • Double vision in one eye
  • Problem in night vision or in low light
  • Seeing halos around lights
  • Light sensitivity
  • Colours appear faded. You may have trouble telling the difference between blues and greens
  • Difficulty in seeing an object with the same colour background.

Factors that increase your risk for developing cataract are:

  • Family history of cataracts
  • Excessive exposure to sunlight
  • High cholesterol
  • high blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Previous eye injury or surgery

During initial stages, changing the contact lenses and eyeglasses prescription might help. Using a magnifying glass and brighter lights for reading or other close-up works may also help. If glare or halo is causing a problem then avoid driving at night. However, glare can be an issue during daytime as well. Ensure that your prescription is up-to-date. Use special tints to lessen glare. If cataract interferes with your day-to-day activities then consult an ophthalmologist who specialises in cataract surgery for removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with clear lens implants.

Other Retinal Diseases

1. Diabetic retinopathy is a complication when there’s an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina that leaks fluid or bleeds. You may experience blurred vision and have trouble reading.

Laser treatment can stop the leakage in early stages of the disease, thus, helping in preventing serious complications.

2. Retinal vessel occlusion is a complication that occurs with diabetes or glaucoma. It is a condition when a vein in the retina is blocked. You are at greater risk of developing this condition if you have high blood pressure or due to narrowing of the arteries.

Depending on the type of blockage you experience moderate levels of vision loss that comes and goes. You may even have sudden and severe vision loss accompanied by pain that may require immediate attention.

Source: https://www.webmd.com/eye-health/age-related-vision#2-3

Eye Health Issues: Warning Signs

The 60s is also the time when you are at greater risk of developing sight-threatening conditions. All the eye troubles come with definite symptoms and early signs. Visit an eye specialist immediately if you experience the following symptoms:

  • Fluctuating vision: Frequent changes in your visual clarity can be a sign of high blood pressure or diabetes. These are chronic conditions that damage the blood vessels in the retina. Sometimes this vision loss is permanent.
  • Seeing floaters and light flashes: You may also see spots or floaters in your vision field. In most cases, these floaters or shadowy images are nothing but of the particles floating in the liquid that covers the inside of the eye. They are bothersome at times but spots and floaters don’t harm your vision. They are a part of the eye’s natural ageing process. However, if you see that there is a sudden surge in the number of floaters then it’s a sign that there might be a tear in your retina and that it might have detached. This is a condition that deserves immediate medical attention for preventing serious vision loss.
  • Loss of peripheral vision: If you lose your peripheral or side vision, then it’s a sign that you might have Glaucoma. The most common form of Glaucoma doesn’t have any symptom unless your vision is affected.
  • Images becoming distorted: If images appear distorted, such as a straight line appears wavy or if you see an empty area in your central vision, it’s a sign of AMD. It affects the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for your central vision.

Source: https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/good-vision-throughout-life/adult-vision-19-to-40-years-of-age/adult-vision-41-to-60-years-of-age

  • Keep your Eyes Healthy

There are several things that you can do to keep your eyes as healthy as possible in your 60s:

  • Eat a healthy, balanced diet: This is essential for your eyes. Not eating eye-healthy nutrients is often one of the major causes of many eye conditions. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and fill your plate with different colours. It doesn’t only benefit your overall health but also shields you against eye conditions such as AMD and Cataract.
  • Wear sunglasses when out in the sun: The harmful UV rays can damage your eyes and increase your risk of developing cataracts. Whenever going out in the sun, wear sunglasses or contact lenses that have a UV filter.
  • Quit smoking: because it increases your risk of developing conditions such as AMD and cataracts.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: If you are overweight, it increases your risk of diabetes, which may cause vision loss.
  • Increase the lighting: When you are in your 60s, your eyes need three times more light to see clearly than they did in your 20s. Poor lighting conditions can strain your eyes. So, improve the daylight in your home. Ensure your home has good electric lighting. Use direct light for reading and any kind of close-up work. Make sure that it doesn’t cause glare.
  • Exercise: because it improves the flow of oxygen and blood circulation to every part of your body including your eyes. This is important for maintaining a good eye health.
  • Get enough Sleep: It’s because when you sleep your eyes are continuously lubricated, thus helping in clearing dust and irritants that may have accumulated throughout the day.
  • Wear the right lenses: An eye test will establish whether you need a different prescription for your glasses or contact lenses. It’s important to wear the correct prescription lenses. This will improve your quality of life and reduce the risk of accidents such as falls.

Source: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/over60s/Pages/eyehealth.aspx

Cataract Surgery in Kolkata

If you are looking for a place for undergoing cataract surgery or want to learn more about the treatment prospects or cataract surgery cost in Kolkata, get in touch with us at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

Childhood Cataracts: What you Need to Know

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Your eye lens is crystal clear. When it gets cloudy or any opacity of your eyes is called Cataract. Cataracts are of many types. Some are minor and do not interfere with your vision. However, others can be large and cause vision impairment. If you think that cataracts only affect older adults, you are wrong. Babies are also born with cataracts or children may develop them at a very young age. Such conditions are called Childhood cataracts.

Childhood cataracts are also known as:

  • Congenital cataracts – This is when a baby is born with cataract or develops it shortly after birth.
  • Developmental or Juvenile cataracts – This is when older children develop a cataract.

Source: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Cataracts-childhood/Pages/Introduction.aspx

Classification of Cataract in Children

Cataracts in children depend on a number of factors such as age, causes and forms of cataracts. Depending on these factors, the classification of cataract in children is as follows:

1. The Age of Onset

  • Congenital or Infantile Cataract

Lens opacity may be present at birth indicating a congenital onset of cataract but often this may go unrecognised. So, a later diagnosis of lens opacity also falls under this category. Before the cataract is extracted, it is essential to provide a thorough description of the type of the lens opacity. Determination of type is essential to find out whether it is associated with any other disease or not. Morphological categories of cataracts including central foetal nuclear, anterior polar, and posterior polar indicate a congenital cataract. On the other hand, conditions such as Lamellar or cortical cataract can also be associated congenital or a later onset of cataract.

  • Juvenile Cataract

This cataract is caused due to an external cause. Many use this term for indicating the onset of cataract after infancy, which may not indicate a non-genetic cause.

Childhood Cataract: Causes

There are several factors for the onset of cataract in children. These include:

  • Genetic

Around half of the childhood cataracts are the result of genetic mutations. These genes code for proteins that are responsible for lens structure or clarity. Any metabolic disorders may cause cataracts.

  • Trauma

This is one of the primary reasons of acquired cataracts in children. This type of cataract is more common in boys. They may get it due to a penetrating or blunt injury to the eye. Also, the presence of intraocular or intraorbital foreign body may also cause this. So a thorough eye examination is essential.

Secondary Causes

Secondary causes of cataract include:

  • Uveitis – Cataracts may develop due to chronic ocular inflammation or due to the chronic use of steroids. Surgery of this type of cataracts is often complicated by postoperative inflammation. So, to avoid pre operative inflammation in the anterior segment of the eye, any usage of pre-, intra-, and postoperative sub conjunctival, topical, intracameral, and other systemic steroids should be avoided. Patients may often have a pupillary membrane covering the lens. This attaches to the iris, thus further complicating the surgery. These membranes can be peeled off of the anterior lens capsule during surgery for facilitating lens removal. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is yet another cause of anterior uveitis in children. Any other type of uveitis may also cause cataract due to inflammation of by complications created by usage of steroids.
  • Intraocular tumours – It is very rare for cataracts to develop as a result of intraocular tumours. However, treatment of such a tumour using radiotherapy may lead to the development of cataract. In this case, the timing of removal of cataract removal needs to be carefully considered.
  • Chronic retinal detachment – These cataracts result from injuries or are often associated with Stickler syndrome. If the lens is completely opaque, the eye specialist will perform pre operative ultrasonography to rule out any possibilities of chronic retinal detachment.
  • Maternal infection (rubella) – This type of cataract is only seen in some parts of the world where rubella hasn’t been eradicated.

Forms of Cataract

The forms of Childhood Cataract includes:

Diffuse or Total Cataract

This is one of the common types of congenital cataract; however, there is no specific cause of this type of cataracts.

Anterior Cataract

This type of cataract can be further divided into three forms:

  • Anterior polar – The opacity appears in the capsule itself and may extend into the anterior chamber as a very tiny mammillation.
  • Pyramidal – These are comparatively larger than Anterior polar cataracts and may progress to visual significance. Such type of cataract is pretty difficult to remove using a vitrectomy instrument. It may require removal using forceps.
  • Anterior lenticonus – This condition refers to a thinned central anterior capsule with or without any anterior cortical opacity. This condition is a characteristic of Alport syndrome. The lens may get ruptured causing a hydrated total cataract.

Cortical lamellar

This cataract occurs between the adjacent clear lamellae.

Fetal nuclear

This type of cataract occurs in the central part of the lens. They may appear like a dot or may also be dense. This type of cataract usually measure between 2-3.5 mm and is often associated with microphthalmia. It is said to be associated with postoperative glaucoma and may need surgery during early infancy.

Posterior polar

This type of cataract is different from posterior subcapsular cataract. The opacity occurs in the capsule itself.

Posterior lentiglobus (lenticonus)

In this condition, the central and sometimes paracentral posterior capsule thins and may protrude to the rear. This happens where the hyaloid system connects to the eye. This type of distortion may result in a specific area of extreme myopic refraction.

Posterior subcapsular

This type of cataract can be congenital but in most of the cases, is acquired due to any injury or steroid use. The opacity is cortical and does not involve the capsule.

Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV)

The opacity in this type of cataract is generally capsular. It is associated with, thickening, shrinkage, and vascularization of the capsule.

Traumatic disruption of lens

Traumatic anterior lens capsule ruptures quickly in children causing hydrated white cataract.

Source: https://www.aao.org/pediatric-center-detail/pediatric-cataracts-overview

The signs of cataracts

There are several signs indicating your child might be suffering from cataracts. The signs are as follows:

  • The child may not look directly towards any object. They may respond to faces or any other large, bright and colourful objects. If you see that your infant cannot locate small objects while he or she is crawling on the floor, then he may have vision problems or is suffering from cataracts.
  • When exposed to bright sunlight, the child may excessively squint and scowl, and try to shield his or her eye. This is due to the resulting glare from a cataract.
  • Your child’s eyes may not be aligned. They may not focus properly on the same point at a time. This condition is also known as strabismus.
  • Instead of a red reflex, you may notice a white reflex in your child’s eye. For instance, in the photograph of the child, one of his/her eyes may appear white while the other has the usual “red eye” look.
  • The child may have repetitive wandering movement in the affected eyes. This condition is also known as nystagmus. This sign may appear later when the infant is several months old.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/children/tc/cataracts-in-children-topic-overview#1

Treating Cataracts in Children

The treatment options for cataract in children include:


The doctor will perform the surgery on your baby under general anaesthetic. It takes approximately an hour or two. Usually, an ophthalmologist performs this operation. If the child has cataracts are from birth, then you must get it operated as soon as possible. Usually, within a month or two of birth, the operation needs to be carried out. Any negligence or delay may result in vision loss.

Before the operation is performed, the ophthalmologist will apply drops to your baby’s eyes. This is for dilating the pupil of the eye. After that, the doctor makes a very small cut on the surface of the cornea and the removes the cloudy lens. In many cases, the doctor inserts a transparent plastic lens known as an intraocular lens (IOL) or an intraocular implant. This is done during the operation for replacing the cloudy lens that has been removed. This lens is inserted because you cannot focus without a lens. However, many times, the doctor may prescribe the use of external contact lenses or glasses (in case both the eyes are affected) for compensating for the lens removal. These external lenses are fitted a week of two after the operation.

The majority of the ophthalmologists will recommend using contact lenses or glasses in children who are under 12 months old during the time of their eye surgery. This is because babies who have an IOL inserted in their eyes have a higher risk of eye complications or may need further surgery. Once the operation is done, the incision in the eyes of your child will be closed with stitches which eventually dissolve.

Post- Operation

Once the operation is over, the doctor will place a pad or a transparent shield on your child’s eye for protecting it. In most of the cases, the child needs to stay in the hospital overnight so that the doctors may monitor his/her recovery.

If your child has cataracts in both eyes the doctor will operate on both eyes separately. This is done to reduce the risk of any complications that may affect both the eyes. Usually, there is a gap of several days between the two operations. The doctor may perform the second surgery within a week of the first one.

The doctor will provide you eye drops that you need to put in your child’s eye. This drop helps in reducing inflammation, redness and any kind of swelling in the eye. Every two to four hours, you need to put the drops in your child’s eyes. The doctor will show you the method before leaving the hospital.

Further treatment

After undergoing a cataract surgery, most of the children need to wear glasses or contact lenses. This is because the vision is usually blurred in the operated eye and it may not be able to focus on its own. Even if an artificial lens is fitted, the child will need glasses or contact lenses. This helps the child to focus on nearby objects as the artificial lens can only focus on distant objects.

Wearing a patch

For almost all cases of unilateral cataract (where only one eye is affected), the child needs to wear an eye patch. The doctor may also recommend wearing an eye patch of a child with cataracts in both eyes has a weaker vision in one eye. They need to wear the temporary patch on the stronger eye. This is known as occlusion therapy.

Occlusion therapy is used for improving vision in the weaker eye by forcing the brain to identify visual signals from the affected/operated eye. Without this treatment, children with unilateral cataract may not be able to develop good vision in the operated eye.

Orthoptists (often described as the physiotherapists for the eye) assess the visual function. The Orthoptist is the one to guide you about when your child needs to wear the patch and how long they may use it.

Source: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cataracts-childhood/Pages/Treatment.aspx

A strong vision is essential for a child’s overall physical development including his/her success in school. In babies and young children, the vision system is not fully developed and equal input from both eyes is required for the proper growth of the vision centres of the brain. If your child’s brain doesn’t receive clear images from the eyes, his vision may get affected and become extremely limited in such a way that it cannot be corrected even later in their life. So, it’s extremely crucial to detect eye problems very early in life and treat them at the quickly once they are detected.

Perform a thorough vision checkup after he/she is born. The doctors usually do this. Check the child’s vision again during infancy, preschool and during his/her school years.

How can Disha Eye Hospital help you?

If you are looking for experienced eye specialist for performing a thorough check up of your or your child’s eye, you can book an appointment with our experts. Protecting your and your child’s vision is our first priority. Book an appointment today at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.