How Can UV Rays Damage Your Eyes?

Disha Eye Hospital

You must be aware of the potential dangers of harmful UV rays on your skin. But are you aware of the fact that UV rays are equally damaging for your eyes and can cost your vision? Scared, right? Or course we do not want to scare you but wants to share the secrets of protecting your eyes from these harmful rays.

But before we look deeper into the ways UV rays harm your eyes and the remedy, let’s understand what exactly UV radiations are.

All about UV Rays

The Ultraviolet Radiations (UV rays) are a type of electromagnetic radiation and these have higher energy than visible light. UV rays may also come from artificial light sources such welding torches and tanning beds but the sun is the main source of UV rays.[source:]

Experts have divided UV rays according to their wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the more harmful it is. The classification of UV rays is as follows:

1. UVA Rays

This is the weakest of all UV rays as this ray is closer to the visible light spectrum. This ray cannot pass through your skin but can definitely penetrate your Cornea and reach the lens and the Retina of your eyes. If you are exposed to sunlight for long and without any kind of eye protection then, in the long run this might cause certain types of cataracts. UVA rays are the prime culprit behind Macular Degeneration.[source:]

2. UVB Rays

This is a medium-wavelength radiation and can penetrate your skin surface to a certain extent (overexposure to UVB rays give you a sun tan). UVB rays cause pingueculae and pterygia. These are growths on the eye’s surface and can distort your vision and cause other corneal problems. UVB rays also cause a painful eye condition called “Photokeratitis.” Also known as “Snow Blindness,” this is the inflammation of your Cornea and in severe cases may cause temporary vision loss that may last up to 24-48 hours. Since the Cornea absorbs 100% UVB rays, these rays do not cause macular degeneration or cataract (these two are linked with UVA rays).[source:] Although UVB rays cannot filter completely through the earth’s atmosphere but still, a certain amount of these rays reach the earth’s surface.

3. UVC Rays

This ray is the most harmful of the rest of the two. This has the shortest wavelength and is most damaging. Luckily, the Ozone layer completely filters it and UVC rays cannot reach the earth’s surface.[source:]

What Increases your risk of UV Exposure?

While any person who spends too much time out in the sun is at greater risk of UV ray damage but there are certain factors that determine the risks of eye damage from UV rays. These are:

  • Your Geographic Location: UV rays are also strong in tropical regions near the equator.
  • Altitude: UV rays are pretty strong in higher altitude so if you are on a vacation to any hilly area or live there, your eyes are at risk of damage.
  • The time of the Day: When the sun is high in the sky, typically between 10 AM to 2 PM, the risk of damage is greater.
  • Open spaces: Levels of UV rays are higher in open spaces and in places with highly reflective surfaces such as sand and snow increases the chances of eye damage from UV rays.
  • Medicines: Certain medication such as sulfa drugs, tetracycline, diuretics, and birth control pills increase your body’s sensitivity to UV rays.


UV rays and Eye Damage

UV rays can cause serious eye damages. This includes:

  • Macular Degeneration: UV rays cause macular degeneration. This is a condition where the central part of your Retina called Macula is damaged. This blurs your vision, makes it distorted and also results in the development of a blind spot in your field of vision.
  • Cataract: Overexposure to UV rays, especially UV-B rays cause certain kind of cataracts. This is a condition where the natural lens of your eyes gets clouded.
  • Pterygium: This is a growth on your eye that first appears on the white of the eye and may also develop in the cornea. Eventually, the growth blocks your vision. People who stay outside for long hours are particularly at risk.
  • Skin Cancer: Prolonged UV exposure may result in skin cancer around the eyelids.
  • Corneal Sunburn: Also known as photokeratitis, this condition is often caused by high intensity but short-term exposure to UV-B rays. Spending long hours at the beach or in the snow without proper eye protection can cause photokeratitis. This can be painful and may cause temporary vision loss.


Tips for Protecting Your Eyes

Follow these tips to keep your eyes safe in the sun:

  • If you think that sun rays are only harmful during summers then you are wrong. Sun rays can damage your eyes throughout the year. So, wear UV-blocking sunglasses every time you go out in the sun. Get sunglasses that block 100% UVA and UVB rays. Use broad-brimmed hats when outside. This also prevents sun damage to your eyes.
  • UV rays can damage your eyes even on a cloudy day. Clouds can block only visible light but UV radiations can easily penetrate the clouds. So, do not be fooled by the clouds.
  • Avoid looking at the sun directly even during the eclipse even while wearing a sunglass. This may cause solar retinopathy, a condition where solar radiation damages your retina.
  • Kids and older family members are also at risk. Protect their eyes as well. Make them wear UV protected sunglasses and hats when they go out. Use wraparound sunglasses for complete eye protection.


Next time when you are going out in the sun, do not forget to wear protective eye gear. And in case you have any kind of eye problem, simply get in touch with the experts at Disha Eye Hospital.

Eye Care for Computer Users – The Ultimate Guide

eye care tips

After staring at your computer or laptop for hours, have you ever felt a throbbing pain in your head or have your eyes ever felt dry, itchy, or fatigued? There is a name for all these symptoms- Eyestrain. Be it for work or any other purpose, people are now spending more time staring at the computers or any other digital device. This puts extreme stress on your eyes. Many of you spend more than 10 hours staring directly at the computer. In addition to that, you would also stare at a smartphone or other portable digital device with a small screen and smaller prints which lead to closer viewing distances. Often, while doing so, you forget to blink. This decreases your visual comfort and strains your eyes.

How Computers Affect Your Eyes?

When you working on the computer you eyes have to continuously focus and refocus. The printed lines appearing on the screen are of varied shapes, fonts, and colours. AS you read the lines, your eyes have to move back and forth. Moreover, often you have to refer to printed material and then again look at computer screen. As the images change, your eyes have o react accordingly for your brain to understand what you are seeing. For doing this, your eyes have to work really hard and as a result, it gets tired. This gets worse if the screen has contrast, glare, and flicker issues.

You will have more trouble if you already have any eye problem. If you have glasses and if you do not use them, then it may escalate the problem. Moreover, wearing fancy contact lenses or glasses with wrong lenses that aren’t prescribed by the doctor will increase your eye troubles.

As you age, working on the computer or any digital device gets tough. Your eyes lose their flexibility. Also, as you approach your 40s, your eyes lose their ability to properly focus and refocus on objects both far and near. Eye specialists call this condition Presbyopia. Staring at the computer screen for long hours make your eyes weaker and affect your vision.


Reading something on a computer screen is completely different than reading something on a printed page. Letters on a computer screen are often not well defined or sharp. The level of contrast of the letters compared to their background is also reduced and the glare from your computer screen makes reading a difficult task. Moreover, the viewing distances and angles that you generally use for doing computer work is different from the angles that you use for reading books or printed documents and writing. And that is why the eye focusing and eye movement requirements for computer work make your visual system work hard. If you are in your 40s, your eyes will find it a bit difficult to adjust to this additional requirement. Even the eyeglasses or contact lenses that are prescribed for general use may not seem appropriate for computer-related work. You may need to get specialised lenses that are designed to meet such additional demands for your eyes. This lens with certain power, coating, and tints helps in maximising your visual abilities and your viewing comfort.


How to Reduce Eye Strain

Here’s a list of what you can do to minimise eye strain:

1. Minimise glare.

Change the lighting of your environment or work station. This will help reduce the effect on your computer screen. If you sit near a window, move away. It’s because the light from the window may cast a glare on the computer screen. You may install a dimmer or get a desk lamp with movable shade. This will cast light evenly on your desk or else, you may even add a glare filter to your monitor. Most of the times, excessively bright light from other light sources (harsh interior light or light coming through the window) cause eye strain. Technically, when you are using a computer, the ambient light should be half as bright as found in any office setting. Close the drapes and shades to minimise exterior light. Reduce interior light by using lower intensity lights. Position your computer of a laptop in a way that the windows are to your side and not behind you or just in front of you. Turn off any overhead fluorescent light. Often, this might be uncomfortable for your eyes.


2. Check your sitting Arrangement

The monitor should be slightly below your eye level. It should be about 20 to 28 inches away from your face. Ideally, while working n a computer, you shouldn’t be stretching your neck and get closers to the computer to see what’s written on the screen. If you have to look simultaneously at the computer and any other printed document, place the document in a way that you do not have to look down and the up to the screen while you type. Put a stand next to the computer and fix the document there.

3. Give your eyes some exercise

It’s your eyes and not a machine. They too need a break. So when you are working on the computer at a stretch, try to follow the 20-20-20 rule. Look away from the computer screen every 20 minutes and look at anything that’s at least 20 feet away from you. Look at it for about 20 seconds. Use eye drops if your eyes hurt. You may try another exercise. Look at any object located far away for 10-15 seconds and then look at something that’ located nearby for about 10-15 seconds. Then again look back at the objects located far away. Repeat this for 10 times. Often, staring for long times at the computer screen locks the eyes’ focusing ability also known as accommodative spasm. This exercise helps in avoiding this condition.

Both of these exercises will reduce your risk of eye strain. Blink frequently while performing these exercises.

4. Change your computer display settings

You don’t need to continue with the presets installed in your computer or laptop. You can change them if it’s uncomfortable for your eyes. Adjust the following things:

  • Brightness: It should be about the same as the brightness of your surroundings. Look at the computer screen and then look at your surrounding background. If the screen appears like a light source, it’s too bright and if it’s too dull compared to the surrounding, the screen is too dark for comfortable viewing.
  • The contrast and text size: Adjust the text size and contrast, especially when you are reading long documents. Black letters printed on a white background is best for comfortable viewing.
  • Adjust the Colour temperature: The display of your computer emits blue light. This light has short-wavelength and causes more eye strain compared to longer wavelength colours such as red and orange. Lowering the colour temperature of your display reduces the amount of blue light emitted by it, thus increasing viewing comfort.


5. Upgrade the computer display

Still using the old tube-style monitor (called a cathode ray tube or CRT)? If yes, then replace it with an LCD display. LCD screens have anti-reflective surface and also, do not have flicker issues. Flickering images increase eye strain. Flicker can also be an issue if the refresh rate of your screen is less than 75 hertz (Hz). In case you are still using a CRT screen adjust the display settings to the highest refresh rate. While buying new LCD display, get a screen that has the highest resolution. This is often related to the “dot pitch” of the computer display. Displays having a low dot pitch have sharp images. While buying, choose one with a display of a dot pitch of .28 mm or smaller. Choose a large display. Get a display having a diagonal screen size of at least 19 inches.

6. Blink often

How often does it happen that you are so much into your work that you forget to blink? Is this common when you are working on a computer? If yes, then this might leave your eyes fatigued and tired. Not blinking while staring at the computer makes your eyes dry and itchy. Blink often to prevent this. Blinking moistens your eyes, thus reducing eye fatigue. The tear coating on your eyes evaporates quickly when you do not blink for a long time. And this is one of the main causes of dry eyes. Moreover, the air in your workstation may be dry, thus increasing the rate at which tears evaporate from your eyes. If you are experiencing dry eyes symptoms, then consult a doctor immediately. The doctor may prescribe you artificial tears for reducing the symptoms.

7. Take frequent breaks

Computer vision syndrome also results in shoulder, neck and back pain. To avoid this, take frequent breaks while working on your computer. Many of you take one or two long breaks during work hours. If you think this will reduce eye strain then you are wrong. This won’t help reduce discomfort. Instead of taking one or two breaks, take frequent 5-minute breaks in between work. When you take a break, stand up, stretch your legs, back, arms, and neck. This reduces muscle fatigue and tension. You may even talk to a fitness expert and get a list of the quick sequence of exercise you perform during the breaks.

8. Treat any uncorrected Vision Problem

Even a minor vision-related issue can affect your viewing comfort levels. Often, we tend to ignore minor vision related issues. Eye issues such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, binocular vision, presbyopia, and astigmatism if left untreated then can be a major contributing factor in increasing eye-related stress. Most of the computer users suffer from uncorrected vision problems. Most of these conditions often do not manifest themselves in works that are less visually demanding but appear while doing a visually demanding work. Most of the people tend to ignore this as a temporary problem. And this worsens the condition. If you work on a computer, you must undergo a comprehensive eye examination periodically. The examination must include an analysis of your eye function at various working distances.


9. Wear computer eyewear

This is necessary for the comfort of your eyes. Talk to your eye care specialist and get your glasses (if you use any) modified for maximum visual comfort. If you wear contact lenses then you should immediately do this. It’s because contact lenses often become dry and uncomfortable when used for a longer time. If you wear bifocals then also computer eyewear is a good option for you. Consider wearing photochromic lenses or lightly tinted lenses for computer viewing. This reduces your exposure to blue light emitted by the digital devices. Talk to your doctor today.


Take Care of Your Eyes

Follow these steps for healthy eyesight:

  • Eat healthily: Good vision depends on getting enough nutrients. Eat food items with lutein, omega-3 fatty acid, Vitamin C and E. Eat lots of green leafy veggies, fish, citrus fruit, eggs, beans, and nuts.
  • Do not Smoke: Smoking harms your eyes and damages the optic nerves. It also increases your chances of cataract and macular degeneration.
  • Protect your eyes in the sun: Wear UV protected sunglasses whenever you go out. This reduces your chances of cataract and macular degeneration and other UV ray-related eye issues.
  • Use protective wear: Whenever you are playing or doing any dangerous work, wear safety eye gear for protecting your eyes.


Regularly visit your eye doctor and get your eyes thoroughly checked. Do not avoid even the slightest discomfort that you may have in your eyes. You may need glasses or contact lenses or special glasses, let the doctor decide what’s best for your eyes. If you are looking for places where you may get your eyes thoroughly checked, you may consider booking an appointment with the experts at the Disha Eye Hospital.

15 Tips for Computer Eye Strain Relief

Be it for work or studying, most of us spend a major part of our day in front of the computer. And with that, Computer Eye Strain too has become commonplace. Almost every day our eyes feel fatigued, dry, and irritated by staring for long hours at the computer screen. If you too feel the same, then you are suffering from Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS).

How Computers Affect your eyes and Vision?

While working in front of a computer, your eyes continuously focus and refocus. As you read the words on the screen, your eyes move back and forth. Often, you have to look at other documents while working and switch your eyes between that document and the computer screen. While you do that your eyes respond to changing images on the screen to create so that your brain can process whatever you are seeing with your eyes. These tasks put much strain on your eye muscles. The flicker, glare, and contrast of the computer screen make things worse.

You may face more problems if you are already suffering from an eye problem. With age, working in front of a computer screen gets difficult as the lenses in your eyes begin to lose flexibility. Around 40 years, your eye’s ability to focus on near and far objects will start to diminish.

Computer Vision Syndrome: Symptoms

CVS affects both adults and kids. Children nowadays spend most of their time in front of the computer. This affects their vision at a young age and may hamper the normal development of eyesight. The common symptoms
Prolonged computer usage may affect the normal development of your child’s eyesight.

Look out for these symptoms to see if your child is having CVS:

  • Blurred vision
  • Double vision
  • Dry, itchy and irritated eyes
  • Increased light sensitivity
  • Eye strain and fatigue
  • Redness in the eyes
  • Difficulty in focusing
  • Gradual deterioration of vision
  • Headaches, backaches, neck pain
  • Difficulty in shifting focus from the monitor to any other object

Here are a few tips to treat Computer Vision Syndrome:

1. Get your eyes examined

First things first- get your eyes checked if you are experiencing any of the symptoms. This is the most important thing that you must do at the first place. This is the first step for preventing any eye issue. Moreover, those who work on computers must get their eyes checked once in a year. During the test, do not forget to inform your eye doctor about how often you use a computer at work and at home. Also, measure the distance between your eyes and the computer screen and inform the doctor about that measurement and see whether it’s appropriate or not.

2. Do not put the computer monitor near a window

Additional light and glare is the biggest source of eyestrain while working on a computer. Ideally, the computer shouldn’t be anywhere near the window but if it’s still there then ensure that there are curtains and blinds in the window to control the intensity of light throughout the day. Do not face and un-shaded window when working on a computer or laptop. The difference of brightness of the screen and the outdoors may cause eye stress. Use an anti-glare screen for reducing reflections.

3. Adjust the height of your monitor

Maximise eye comfort by placing the centre of the computer screen about five to nine inches below the horizontal line of sight. Ideally, you should be looking just over the top of the computer screen in the straight line of your sight.

4. Adjust the display of your computer

This is very important for minimising eye strain and eye fatigue. Modify the display setting of the monitor. This will help reduce eye strain and fatigue. Change the brightness of the display so that the brightness of your display is same as the surrounding workstation. Also, when you are reading long documents on a computer, modify them so that while reading, you have black print on a white background.

5. Rearrange your desk

The best position for your monitor is just a bit below eye level and about 20 to 28 inches away from your face. It must be at a distance where you do not have to strain your eyes or stretch your neck to see what’s there on the screen. If you are looking simultaneously at another document, place it at the level of the monitor, just beside it. In this way, you do not have to look up and down while you work.

6. Consider the Colour temperature

The colour temperature of your display is important. The blue light of the visible spectrum of light has a short wavelength and causes more eye strain compared to colours of longer wavelength such as red and orange. Reduce the colour temperature of your display. This will reduce the amount of blue light emitted by the monitor, giving you viewing comfort.

7. Give your Eyes a much-deserved break

The eyes cannot see at a close distance for long hours. Give them a break. You may follow the 20-20-20 rule. Take a break every 20-minutes and look at any object at least 20 feet away from you for 20 seconds. While you do that, move your eyes and see at different objects at various distances.

8. Blink, Blink, and Blink

It’s sad but true that we often forget to blink while looking at the computer screen. What most of us do is a partial lid closure or blink less frequently. Blinking moistens our eyes and helps prevent dryness and irritation. The tear coating on our eyes evaporates quickly and can cause dry eyes. Moreover, due to air-conditioning system, the air in many offices is dry. This hastens the evaporation process, thus exposing you to greater risk of dry eye problems. In case you have this problem, visit your doctor. He/she might give you artificial tears. Do not confuse them with lubricating eye drops. Such drops tend to reduce the size of the blood vessels in your eyes, making it appear clear. Do not use anything without consulting the doctor. Try blinking slowly, as you do while falling asleep. Do this 10 times. This might help in wetting your eyes.

9. Use Proper Lighting

Proper lighting is extremely important for reducing eye strain. Too bright and too low light will strain your eyes. Excessive light from the outdoor is tough for the eyes. So try to reduce outside light while working. Avoid overhead lighting. Instead, use floor lamps to provide indirect lighting. This will help in comfortable viewing. If you work in too low light, the computer screen may glare at your eyes. You have to balance the lighting.

10. Get Computer Glasses

Prescription eyewear specially designed for computer work may help you focus well on the screen. Also, this helps in reducing glare and computer eye strain. If you use eye glasses, then talk to your doctors and get it customised. If you wear contact lenses, it may become dry and uncomfortable from sustained usage. In that case, getting customised eyeglasses for computer work is the best. This is also beneficial for people who wear bifocals or progressive lenses. Since these lenses are not optimal for the distance to your computer screen so using computer glasses is a good choice.

11. Take frequent breaks

A headache, pain in eye and neck and shoulders are also symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. For reduce pain, the best way is to take frequent breaks during working. If you prefer to take one long break during the entire workday, do not do that. That’s not going to help. Taking frequent mini-breaks of four to five minutes work wonders in reducing discomfort and eye strain. And if you think that taking frequent breaks will affect your productivity then it’s right. It will affect but in a positive way. The less you feel fatigued, the more you can focus on your work. While taking breaks, stand up and move. You may take a short walk around the office or just stretch your arms, legs, shoulders, neck, and back. This helps reduce muscle fatigue and tension.

12. Do not forget your Vitamins

If you have eye health issues then your doctor may prescribe you necessary vitamins. Do not forget to take them. Eat food rich in Vitamin A. This is important for a healthy vision and reinforces the macular tissues in your eyes, thus, keeping your vision clear and sharp. Food items rich in Vitamin A include cheese, egg yolk, milk, and butter.

13. Minimize glare

Glare on the walls and finished surfaces and reflections on the computer screen may also result in eye strain. Install anti-glare screen on your monitor. Consider painting the walls in darker colour or cooler shades in a matte finish. You may use glasses with a lens having an Anti-reflective coating. This also helps in minimising glare.

14. Do not hold digital devices closer to the eyes

People who hold digital devices closer to the eyes than they would if they were reading a book or any other printed material, they are at greater risk of straining their eyes. Digital devices emit blue light that causes eye strain and when you hold them closer, it puts more stress on your eyes. So whenever you are using a smart phone or tablet, try to hold them as far as possible from your eyes. You may try enlarging the print for comfortable reading.

15. Install a Humidifier

Most of the offices are air-conditioned. This makes the air much drier and dry air make your eyes dry. You may try keeping some real plants in and around your work area. You may also keep air humidifier. This helps in increasing the air humidity. Artificially controlling the humidity of your work environment helps reduce eye strain.

Make it a point to visit your eye doctor regularly for check-ups. The eye is a delicate organ and it’s important to take proper care of it for enjoying good vision and preventing any eye condition. Also, keep your prescriptions up to date. If you have any eye problem or experience any change in symptoms, let your doctor know about that. Do not wear fancy glasses or experiment with coloured contact lenses readily available in the market. Consult the doctor before using one. It’s up to the doctor to decide whether you can wear your regular glasses or contacts for computer work or whether you need a special pair. Get your kid’s eyes checked too. Ensure that you limit their computer usage and that they are using computers under proper light.

Eye Hospital in Kolkata

If you have an eye related problem or want to consult an eye specialist regarding Computer Vision Syndrome, you may book an appointment with our specialists.Make it a point to visit your eye doctor regularly for check-ups. Eye is a delicate organ and it’s important to take proper care of it for enjoying good vision and preventing any eye condition. Also keep your prescriptions up to date. If you have any eye problem or experience any change in symptoms, let you doctor know about that. Do not wear fancy glasses or experiment with coloured contact lenses readily available in the market. Consult the doctor before using one. It’s up to the doctor to decide whether you can wear your regular glasses or contacts for computer work or whether you need a special pair. Get your kid’s eyes checked too. Ensure that you limit their computer usage and that they are using computers under proper light.

Eye Hospital in Kolkata

If you have eye related problem or want to consult an eye specialist regarding Computer Vision Syndrome, you may book an appointment with our specialists.

Choosing the Right Sunglasses: Your Eye Health Depends on It

Choosing the Right Sunglasses

Sunrays are bad for your skin. True. But do you know that it’s equally bad for your eyes? Harmful UVA and UVB rays can cause extensive damage to your vision. What can you do to protect your eyes? Simple – wear a sunglass. It is a great fashion accessory and surely there’s a cool-factor attached to it but when it comes to protecting your eyes the right sunglass goes a pretty long way.

How Ultraviolet Radiations harm your Eyes?

UV rays are invisible and are of three types:

1. UVA rays

UVA Rays are closer to visible light rays. Compared to UVB and UVC rays UVA rays have low energy. But these rays can pass through the cornea, reaching the lens and the retina in the back of your eye. Overexposure to this radiation can cause certain types of cataracts. Also, UVA rays may also cause macular degeneration.

2. UVB rays

UVB rays have a bit longer wavelength than UVC rays but are lower in energy than them. While the Ozone layer filters UVB rays buts still a certain percentage reach the earth. In low doses, this radiation stimulates the production of melanin, giving you a suntan. However, in higher doses, UVB rays can increase your risk of skin cancer. It also causes wrinkles, skin discolorations and other signs of premature skin ageing. This ray also causes pingueculae and pterygia. These are growths on the eye’s surface and may distort your vision. UVB rays may cause photokeratitis. This is a painful inflammation of the cornea. Severe photokeratitis (commonly called Snow Blindness) may cause temporary vision loss that may last from 24 to 48 hours.

3. UVC rays

This is the highest-energy UV rays and is the most harmful of all. Thankfully, the Ozone layer all UVC rays but depletion of the Ozone layer means UVC rays reaching the earth causing severe skin and eye issues and other UV rays related issues.

HEV Radiation Risks

High-Energy Visible or HEV rays or blue light, is visible. Although this ray is low in energy than UV rays, they penetrate your eyes deeply and cause severe damage to the retina. With low blood plasma levels of vitamin C and other antioxidants, HEV rays can cause macular degeneration.

If you love to spend most of the time of day outside, then you are at greater risk of damaging your eyes. The damage from UV and HEV rays depends on a few factors:

  • Your Geographic location

Tropical areas (near the equator) have the greatest levels of UV rays.

  • Altitude

The levels of UV rays are higher at high altitudes.

  • Time of day

Levels of UV and HEV rays are high when the sun is high in the sky from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.

  • Setting

Levels of UV and HEV rays are high on open spaces especially on highly reflective surfaces such as the sand and snow. UV exposure is double when these rays are reflected from the snow.

  • Medications

Certain medicines such as the sulfa drug, tetracycline, diuretics, birth control pills, and tranquillizers, can make your body sensitive to UV and HEV rays.

If you think that you are safe on a cloudy day, then you are wrong. Clouds never cover UV levels. In fact, your risk of UV exposure is very high on cloudy days. This is because UV is invisible and can penetrate clouds.


Does Sunglass Really Protect your Eyes?

Be it sunny days or cloudy, UV rays are always there. Moreover, certain elements such as grass, concrete, snow and water can reflect UV rays. This is equally harmful as direct UV exposure. And if your eyes are unprotected, then an excess amount of UV exposure even for a short period of time can cause Photokeratitis. This condition is also known as a “sunburn of the eye.” This condition is extremely painful. The symptoms include:

  • red eyes
  • a feeling of a foreign-body in the eye or a gritty feeling
  • extreme sensitivity to light, and
  • excessive tearing

The good news is these conditions are usually temporary and rarely causes permanent damage to the eyes.

Long term exposure to UV rays in the course of your life may result in many serious eyes conditions such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, pterygium (an abnormal growth in the cornea) and cancer of the eyes or eyelids and the skin around the eye. Sunglasses with UV ray protection can help you prevent these conditions. These glasses safeguard your eyes from the harmful UV rays.


Not only it protects you from eye conditions but it also helps avoid wrinkles at the corners of your eyes. Too much sun exposure can cause wrinkles around your eyes (often called Crow’s feet). Moreover, it also protects the whites of your eyes.


If you are considering wearing UV protected contact lenses then you may do that but these contacts cannot replace sunglasses. It’s because, with the contacts, the white part of the eyes are still exposed to damage from UV rays. That’s why wearing a sunglass is essential.

Types of Available Lenses

Have you ever thought about the type of lens while buying a sunglass? The answer is quite obvious- No. Most of the people judge a sunglass by its style aspects but when it comes to protecting your eyes, considering the lens type is also important. And an optician is the only one who can guide you while choosing the perfect sunglass. You will find sunglasses with a wide range of lenses on the market. Here’s a quick guide:

1. Blue-blocker

As the name suggests, this lens blocks blue light. Blue light is harmful to eyes and can increase the risk of eye damage by causing conditions such as macular degeneration. Blue-blocker lenses are extremely popular among pilots, skiers, boaters, and hunters. They use this type of lens to heighten contrast.

2. Polarized lenses and Lenses with anti-reflective coating

Both types of lenses reduce reflected glare. Polarized lenses are widely used by those who are into water sports or snow sports. On the other hand, Anti-reflecting coatings eliminate glare caused by light that’s reflecting off the back surface of the lens of your sunglass.

3. Mirror-coated lenses

This type of lens helps limit the amount of rays that’s entering your eye, making your much comfortable.

Mirror coatings are highly reflective and are applied to the top surface of your sunglass lenses. This helps in reducing the amount of light that enters your eyes. This type of lenses is extremely beneficial for people who indulge in activities in very bright conditions, such as during bright sunny days or during snow skiing on a sunny day.

The mirrored sunglasses are available in all colours including silver, gold, copper, and other metallic colours. You will also get mirrored sunglasses in colours such as hot pink, blue and any other colour that you could think of. While choosing the colour absolutely depends on your sense of style but do not think that the colour of coating has anything to do with your colour perception. The tint is determined by the colour of the lens below the coating. So, don’t expect to see the world turn pink wearing those hot pink mirrored glasses.

4. Gradient lenses

These lenses tinted from the top down, so the top of the lens is the darkest. Gradient lens is good for driving as it shields your eyes from overhead sunlight while allowing more light through the bottom half of the lens so that you may clearly see the dashboard.

5. Double gradient

This type of lens is also tinted but from the bottom up. So the top and the bottom of the sunglass are the darkest while the middle part has a lighter tint. This type of lens is a great choice if you want sunglasses that are not too dark, but protect the eyes from bright overhead sunlight and light reflecting off the water, sand or any other reflective surfaces.

6. Photochromic lenses

This type of lens adjusts their level of darkness on the basis of a number of UV rays they are exposed to.


How to choose the Right Shades?

Here is what to consider before buying sunglasses:

1. Does it block both UVA and UVB rays?

Before you check the price or brand, check whether the glasses block 100% of both UVA and UVB rays or not. If not, do not buy them. This is not too much to expect from a quality sunglass.

2. Does it fit right?

If it doesn’t fit well then it can let UV rays seep onto your eyes and skin. You may fall in love with the great style and amazing design of the sunglass and your heart may ache to leave it on the rack but do it if it doesn’t fit you. Think about your eyes. They are more precious than style! Look for something that sits well on your nose, doesn’t touch your eyelashes, doesn’t need to be pushed, and is in the line up with your brow. Sunglasses that wrap around your eyes are best for blocking stray UV rays and also protect your eyes from sneaky dust and sand particles.

3. Darkness and Color

Do not think that just because the lens is black, it blocks UV rays. Always check the label. The pupil (the black dot just at the centre of your eye) regulates how much light enters through it. So when you wear dark glasses, the pupil opens more to let in more light. And if the glasses are not UV protected, that means you more UV rays are entering your eyes.

4. Type of Lenses

Plastic or Shatterproof glass? Well, it’s completely your choice but check how much they help you to see clearly and protect your eyes. There are certain lenses that are too curved and a can distort vision. As long as the lens is UVA and UVB protected, you may buy any lenses.

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5. Get Bigger glasses

This gives you more coverage and ensures that your eyes are safe from sun damage. Always buy oversized glasses or wraparound-style glasses. This will help cut down the levels of UV rays sneaking into the eye from the sides.

6. Price is not an indicator

High price doesn’t determine the quality of UV protection. Even costly sunglasses can be less effective in blocking harmful UV rays compared to less expensive glasses. As there is no uniform labelling of sunglasses, always consult the optometrist for selecting the best sunglass for your eyes.

7. Buy for your kid

Ensure that your child wears sunglasses when outdoors. Consider sunglasses with impact-resistant lenses and the frame has features such as spring hinges (if the kid is too active). Buy sunglasses with straps or ear pieces that wrap around the ear if the child is very young. If your child wears prescription eye glasses then make him/her wear prescription sunglasses.

A few Tips for protecting your eyes

1. Always wear sunglasses while going out. This is particularly essential during the peak sunlight hours. The sun rays are the strongest between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. Also, wear sunglasses when you’re at higher altitudes. UV rays are pretty intense at high altitudes.

2. Wear sunglasses even if it’s cloudy. Just like you wear sunscreen even on a cloudy day, wear sunglasses even if it’s not sunny outside. UV rays can penetrate clouds and harm your eyes.

3. You may consider wearing a wide-brimmed hat. This also helps in blocking some UV rays from entering your eyes.

4. Sunglasses are not only for summers. Wear them throughout the year.


Hopefully, these tips will give you a fair idea about sunglasses and their characteristics. With the right pair of sunglasses, you can enjoy outdoor activities without harming your eyes. See your eye specialist frequently and get your eyes examined thoroughly. This is the best way for monitoring your eye health and maintaining good eye sight.

Childhood Cataracts: What you Need to Know

Disha Eye Hospital

Your eye lens is crystal clear. When it gets cloudy or any opacity of your eyes is called Cataract. Cataracts are of many types. Some are minor and do not interfere with your vision. However, others can be large and cause vision impairment. If you think that cataracts only affect older adults, you are wrong. Babies are also born with cataracts or children may develop them at a very young age. Such conditions are called Childhood cataracts.

Childhood cataracts are also known as:

  • Congenital cataracts – This is when a baby is born with cataract or develops it shortly after birth.
  • Developmental or Juvenile cataracts – This is when older children develop a cataract.


Classification of Cataract in Children

Cataracts in children depend on a number of factors such as age, causes and forms of cataracts. Depending on these factors, the classification of cataract in children is as follows:

1. The Age of Onset

  • Congenital or Infantile Cataract

Lens opacity may be present at birth indicating a congenital onset of cataract but often this may go unrecognised. So, a later diagnosis of lens opacity also falls under this category. Before the cataract is extracted, it is essential to provide a thorough description of the type of the lens opacity. Determination of type is essential to find out whether it is associated with any other disease or not. Morphological categories of cataracts including central foetal nuclear, anterior polar, and posterior polar indicate a congenital cataract. On the other hand, conditions such as Lamellar or cortical cataract can also be associated congenital or a later onset of cataract.

  • Juvenile Cataract

This cataract is caused due to an external cause. Many use this term for indicating the onset of cataract after infancy, which may not indicate a non-genetic cause.

Childhood Cataract: Causes

There are several factors for the onset of cataract in children. These include:

  • Genetic

Around half of the childhood cataracts are the result of genetic mutations. These genes code for proteins that are responsible for lens structure or clarity. Any metabolic disorders may cause cataracts.

  • Trauma

This is one of the primary reasons of acquired cataracts in children. This type of cataract is more common in boys. They may get it due to a penetrating or blunt injury to the eye. Also, the presence of intraocular or intraorbital foreign body may also cause this. So a thorough eye examination is essential.

Secondary Causes

Secondary causes of cataract include:

  • Uveitis – Cataracts may develop due to chronic ocular inflammation or due to the chronic use of steroids. Surgery of this type of cataracts is often complicated by postoperative inflammation. So, to avoid pre operative inflammation in the anterior segment of the eye, any usage of pre-, intra-, and postoperative sub conjunctival, topical, intracameral, and other systemic steroids should be avoided. Patients may often have a pupillary membrane covering the lens. This attaches to the iris, thus further complicating the surgery. These membranes can be peeled off of the anterior lens capsule during surgery for facilitating lens removal. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is yet another cause of anterior uveitis in children. Any other type of uveitis may also cause cataract due to inflammation of by complications created by usage of steroids.
  • Intraocular tumours – It is very rare for cataracts to develop as a result of intraocular tumours. However, treatment of such a tumour using radiotherapy may lead to the development of cataract. In this case, the timing of removal of cataract removal needs to be carefully considered.
  • Chronic retinal detachment – These cataracts result from injuries or are often associated with Stickler syndrome. If the lens is completely opaque, the eye specialist will perform pre operative ultrasonography to rule out any possibilities of chronic retinal detachment.
  • Maternal infection (rubella) – This type of cataract is only seen in some parts of the world where rubella hasn’t been eradicated.

Forms of Cataract

The forms of Childhood Cataract includes:

Diffuse or Total Cataract

This is one of the common types of congenital cataract; however, there is no specific cause of this type of cataracts.

Anterior Cataract

This type of cataract can be further divided into three forms:

  • Anterior polar – The opacity appears in the capsule itself and may extend into the anterior chamber as a very tiny mammillation.
  • Pyramidal – These are comparatively larger than Anterior polar cataracts and may progress to visual significance. Such type of cataract is pretty difficult to remove using a vitrectomy instrument. It may require removal using forceps.
  • Anterior lenticonus – This condition refers to a thinned central anterior capsule with or without any anterior cortical opacity. This condition is a characteristic of Alport syndrome. The lens may get ruptured causing a hydrated total cataract.

Cortical lamellar

This cataract occurs between the adjacent clear lamellae.

Fetal nuclear

This type of cataract occurs in the central part of the lens. They may appear like a dot or may also be dense. This type of cataract usually measure between 2-3.5 mm and is often associated with microphthalmia. It is said to be associated with postoperative glaucoma and may need surgery during early infancy.

Posterior polar

This type of cataract is different from posterior subcapsular cataract. The opacity occurs in the capsule itself.

Posterior lentiglobus (lenticonus)

In this condition, the central and sometimes paracentral posterior capsule thins and may protrude to the rear. This happens where the hyaloid system connects to the eye. This type of distortion may result in a specific area of extreme myopic refraction.

Posterior subcapsular

This type of cataract can be congenital but in most of the cases, is acquired due to any injury or steroid use. The opacity is cortical and does not involve the capsule.

Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV)

The opacity in this type of cataract is generally capsular. It is associated with, thickening, shrinkage, and vascularization of the capsule.

Traumatic disruption of lens

Traumatic anterior lens capsule ruptures quickly in children causing hydrated white cataract.


The signs of cataracts

There are several signs indicating your child might be suffering from cataracts. The signs are as follows:

  • The child may not look directly towards any object. They may respond to faces or any other large, bright and colourful objects. If you see that your infant cannot locate small objects while he or she is crawling on the floor, then he may have vision problems or is suffering from cataracts.
  • When exposed to bright sunlight, the child may excessively squint and scowl, and try to shield his or her eye. This is due to the resulting glare from a cataract.
  • Your child’s eyes may not be aligned. They may not focus properly on the same point at a time. This condition is also known as strabismus.
  • Instead of a red reflex, you may notice a white reflex in your child’s eye. For instance, in the photograph of the child, one of his/her eyes may appear white while the other has the usual “red eye” look.
  • The child may have repetitive wandering movement in the affected eyes. This condition is also known as nystagmus. This sign may appear later when the infant is several months old.


Treating Cataracts in Children

The treatment options for cataract in children include:


The doctor will perform the surgery on your baby under general anaesthetic. It takes approximately an hour or two. Usually, an ophthalmologist performs this operation. If the child has cataracts are from birth, then you must get it operated as soon as possible. Usually, within a month or two of birth, the operation needs to be carried out. Any negligence or delay may result in vision loss.

Before the operation is performed, the ophthalmologist will apply drops to your baby’s eyes. This is for dilating the pupil of the eye. After that, the doctor makes a very small cut on the surface of the cornea and the removes the cloudy lens. In many cases, the doctor inserts a transparent plastic lens known as an intraocular lens (IOL) or an intraocular implant. This is done during the operation for replacing the cloudy lens that has been removed. This lens is inserted because you cannot focus without a lens. However, many times, the doctor may prescribe the use of external contact lenses or glasses (in case both the eyes are affected) for compensating for the lens removal. These external lenses are fitted a week of two after the operation.

The majority of the ophthalmologists will recommend using contact lenses or glasses in children who are under 12 months old during the time of their eye surgery. This is because babies who have an IOL inserted in their eyes have a higher risk of eye complications or may need further surgery. Once the operation is done, the incision in the eyes of your child will be closed with stitches which eventually dissolve.

Post- Operation

Once the operation is over, the doctor will place a pad or a transparent shield on your child’s eye for protecting it. In most of the cases, the child needs to stay in the hospital overnight so that the doctors may monitor his/her recovery.

If your child has cataracts in both eyes the doctor will operate on both eyes separately. This is done to reduce the risk of any complications that may affect both the eyes. Usually, there is a gap of several days between the two operations. The doctor may perform the second surgery within a week of the first one.

The doctor will provide you eye drops that you need to put in your child’s eye. This drop helps in reducing inflammation, redness and any kind of swelling in the eye. Every two to four hours, you need to put the drops in your child’s eyes. The doctor will show you the method before leaving the hospital.

Further treatment

After undergoing a cataract surgery, most of the children need to wear glasses or contact lenses. This is because the vision is usually blurred in the operated eye and it may not be able to focus on its own. Even if an artificial lens is fitted, the child will need glasses or contact lenses. This helps the child to focus on nearby objects as the artificial lens can only focus on distant objects.

Wearing a patch

For almost all cases of unilateral cataract (where only one eye is affected), the child needs to wear an eye patch. The doctor may also recommend wearing an eye patch of a child with cataracts in both eyes has a weaker vision in one eye. They need to wear the temporary patch on the stronger eye. This is known as occlusion therapy.

Occlusion therapy is used for improving vision in the weaker eye by forcing the brain to identify visual signals from the affected/operated eye. Without this treatment, children with unilateral cataract may not be able to develop good vision in the operated eye.

Orthoptists (often described as the physiotherapists for the eye) assess the visual function. The Orthoptist is the one to guide you about when your child needs to wear the patch and how long they may use it.


A strong vision is essential for a child’s overall physical development including his/her success in school. In babies and young children, the vision system is not fully developed and equal input from both eyes is required for the proper growth of the vision centres of the brain. If your child’s brain doesn’t receive clear images from the eyes, his vision may get affected and become extremely limited in such a way that it cannot be corrected even later in their life. So, it’s extremely crucial to detect eye problems very early in life and treat them at the quickly once they are detected.

Perform a thorough vision checkup after he/she is born. The doctors usually do this. Check the child’s vision again during infancy, preschool and during his/her school years.

How can Disha Eye Hospital help you?

If you are looking for experienced eye specialist for performing a thorough check up of your or your child’s eye, you can book an appointment with our experts. Protecting your and your child’s vision is our first priority. Book an appointment today at

35 Facts on Burning Eyes

35 Facts on Burning Eyes

Our eyes are one of the most sensitive organs in our body. It is made up of many delicate tissues and some of them are exposed. The outermost part of the eyes (which is exposed and which is visible to us) is covered by a very thin and transparent layer called the Conjunctiva. Moreover, we also have the eyelids to protect our eyes. Despite this, our eyes are prone to injuries, discomfort, and strain. Out of all, the most common eye discomfort that we experience is a burning sensation in the eye. This can be mild as well as severe. This often starts as a sensation of heat in your eyes and eventually feels like burning. Although eye burning is a nonemergency condition; however, if it continues, then that could be a sign of a serious underlying eye condition.

Here is a complete guide to Eye Burning:

What’s the difference between burning and heat sensation in eyes?

1. Eye Burning: A burning sensation in the eyes indicate inflammation or eye irritation. If anything gets into your eyes or in case of any other kind of inflammation, a burning sensation in the eyes is the first thing that you will experience before it starts to pain If the inflammation or irritation is severe, then only you will experience pain. A burning sensation in the eye is a warning that your eyes are under strain and you need to visit the eye specialist for further investigation.

2. Heat Sensation in Eyes:
While eye burning is an excessive sensation of heat in the eyes, sometimes you may feel like heat is radiating out of your eyes. This heat sensation in the eyes is often followed by burning in the eyes. If you feel like heat is emanating from your eyes, then it’s an indication that your eyes irritated but to a lesser extent. Visit a doctor immediately otherwise the situation may get worse.


Why do the Eyes burn? – Causes of Eye Burning

Your eyes may burn for several reasons. Sometimes, the reasons are easy to tell. For instance, your eyes may burn if some chemical (contained in shampoos, cream, sunscreen lotions, and the water in the swimming pool) get into your eyes. Also, if you frequently use eye makeup, then also there is a scope of chemicals getting into your eyes (through eye makeup and cleansing products). However, there are many other reasons for eye burning. They are:

3. Eye Strain

This is the most common cause of burning eyes or a sensation of heat in your eyes. Eye strain may occur regularly or occasionally depending on the situation. Several every-day situations may cause eye strain. This includes:

  • Watching television continuously, reading a book or staring at the computer or laptop or smartphone screen for long hours.
  • Reading in low light.
  • Eyesight problems may also cause eye burning. Problems such as nearsightedness or myopia, astigmatism, and farsightedness or hyperopia may cause eye burning, especially when you are not using contact lenses or corrective glasses.
  • Exposure to bright lights and sunlight without wearing sunglasses may also cause eye burning.

4. Allergies

Allergies often irritate your eyes. It irritates the lining of the eyes and often occurs along with conditions such as allergic rhinitis. This irritates both the eyes and the nose causing symptoms such as a runny nose, sneezing and burning of the eyes. This condition of the eye is also known as allergic conjunctivitis. In this condition, the eyes produce histamine for fighting allergens and that’s why the conjunctiva of the eyes becomes red and swollen. Your eyes may also feel like burning. Allergic conjunctivitis doesn’t spread from person to person. Exposure to substances such as pet hair, pollen, dust, and moulds may cause an allergic reaction.


5. Medication

Many medications that you might be taking may cause eye problems as a result of side effects, visit The most common side effects are dry eyes. This makes your eyes prone to infections and burning. Some of the drugs that may cause burning in your eyes and other problems include:

  • Antihypertensives
  • Diuretics
  • Sedatives
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Antihistamines
  • Beta blockers
  • Phenothiazines
  • Nasal decongestants
  • Isotretinoin
  • Atropine
  • Painkillers


6. Eye infection

Eye infection is another cause of eye burning, itching and discharge. Eye infections may be caused due to several factors including:

  • • A virus such as the herpes simplex virus that causes cold sores may also cause eye burning and other eye issues.
  • Bacterial infection
  • Parasite or Fungal infection due to contaminated contact lenses
  • Using unclean contact lenses
  • Using expired eye drops
  • Sharing contact lenses
  • Wearing contact lenses for longer hours
  • Sharing eye makeup

7. Eye injury

Any injury to the eye area may also cause eye burning, itching, and discharge. Eye injuries may occur while playing sports or working with chemicals. This is the reason it’s essential to wear protective eye glasses in such situations. If you wear contact lenses, you may even injure your eyes with your fingernail during putting in or taking out your contact lenses.


Eye Burning may also indicate other underlying causes such as:

8. Pterygium and Pinguecula

This condition is also known as Surfer’s Eye. Pinguecula and pterygium are growths on your conjunctiva.

Pinguecula is a yellow spot or bumps on your conjunctiva. This often appears on the side of the eye, close to the nose. It is a protein, fat, or calcium deposit on the conjunctiva.

Pterygium is a fleshy growth of tissue. It may start as a pinguecula and then eventually, grow. It may be a small growth or even become large enough to cover a part of the cornea. This may affect your vision.
Both these conditions are caused when you have dry eyes. These growths may cause by exposure to dust, wind, and harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. To prevent such growths, you must:

  • wear sunglasses with maximum UV protection whenever going out
  • Wear glasses or goggles to protect your eyes from dust
  • use artificial tears to keep your eyes dry


9. Blepharitis

We all have bacteria on our skin. However, there are people who have more bacteria at the base of their eyelashes. Blepharitis is a condition caused by the presence of bacteria and oily flakes at the base of your eyelashes. As a result, the eyelids swell and become red. It may also feel like your eyes are burning. People with oily skin, dandruff, and dry eyes often suffer from this condition. People with this condition may have dandruff-like flakes on their eyelashes. Also, problematic oil glands in the eyelids may lead to blepharitis.


10. Dry Eyes

Dry eyes are yet another cause of eye burning. Your eyes need tears to stay healthy and comfortable. When your eyes do not produce enough tears it causes dry eye. You may get dry eyes if your eyes do not make the right type of tears. Hormonal changes often result in dry eyes. While both men and women can get dry eye but women are more prone to this condition, especially those who have undergone menopause.


Treating Eye Burning

There are several ways for treating eye burning. If your condition is not so serious, then you may even treat a mild eye burn at home.

Treating Burning Eyes at Home

11. Apply cool compresses on your eyes. This soothes burning and itching.

12. Apply warm compress. This helps in soften crusts (if there are any).

13. Use baby shampoo for washing the eyelids. Use cotton applicator for removing crusts from eyes.

14. Use artificial tears at least 4 to 6 times a day. This helps in treating burning and itchy eyes and other conditions related to dry eyes.

15. If you have allergies then stay away from pets, cosmetics, and grass. Your doctor may give you antihistamine eye drops for treating allergies.

16. If you have conjunctivitis, then wash your hand before and after touching your eyes and avoid touching the unaffected eye for the first few days.


17. Let your eyes rest for a while. Close your eyelids and rest in a dimly lit or dark room. This helps ease burning eyes.

18. Never rub the eyes or eyelids when it’s itching.

19. Start using sunglasses immediately. This will help avoid further irritation.

20. Use non-medicated eye drops for keeping the eyes moisturised.

21. Washing the eyes with water. This soothes the eyes and removes debris. However, do not repeat more than once or twice.

22. If your eyes are burning, immediately remove contact lenses. Start using glasses if the burning is intense and cause tear and redness in the eyes.


When to Visit the Doctor?

If home treatment doesn’t soothe your eyes then there is something seriously wrong with them. Visit a doctor immediately if you experience the following symptoms:

23. If the burning sensation is accompanied by pain or excessive light sensitivity, then visit an eye specialist immediately. Consult a doctor if you experience blurred and double vision, have any eye discharge, see eye floaters or flashes of light or any other unexpected symptoms.

24. Even if you do not experience these additional symptoms but your eyes are burning for more than a few days, contact your eye doctor immediately.
For diagnosing the exact cause of the burning eyes, your eye doctor may perform the following eye exams:

  • Slit lamp exam
  • Visual field exam
  • Eye motion
  • Eyelid
  • Reaction of your pupils to light

The doctor may also check your conjunctiva, cornea, and your vision.


Ways to Prevent Burning Eyes

Here are several tips to help you avoid a burning sensation in your eyes:

25. Avoid any kind of environment that you know may cause burning eyes.

26. Visit your eye doctor regularly. If the burning sensation is caused any underlying condition, only a doctor can find out the reason that’s causing the burning sensation.

27. If you wear contact lenses, inform your doctor about the symptoms that you’re experiencing.

28. Do not discontinue medication or switch contact lens solutions. If you are experiencing eye irritation or eye burning, let your doctor know. They will prescribe you a different solution or medication.

29. Wear goggles, sunglass, face mask or any other eye wear whenever you are going out or participating in any outdoor activity. This helps in reducing light sensitivity and risk of injury.

30. Eat a well-balanced diet. Learn more about vitamins and nutrients that are healthy for your eyes. Include them in your diet.

31. If you suffer from any a condition which is causing a burning sensation in your eyes (such as dry eye syndrome), try to control the conditions. This will help in reducing the symptoms.

32. If any changes occur in your vision or eyes, NEVER ignore that.

33. When working on a computer screen:

  • Always put it about 20-26 inches away from your eyes and just a bit below your eyes level.
  • Regularly clean off the dust from the surface of the computer. Dust accumulation on the surface of the monitor may reduce contrast and create problems such as glare and reflections.
  • Always go for screens that tilt and swivel.
  • Always use glare filter for your screen.

34. Change your work environment.

  • Change the lighting of your environment to avoid glare and harsh reflections.
  • Always use an adjustable chair.

35. Change your work habits.

  • When working on a computer, try the 20-20-20 rule. Every 20 minutes, look at any object about 20 feet away for at least 20 seconds.
  • Blink often.
  • Take regular breaks and look away from the computer screen.
  • To prevent dry eyes when indoor, use an air cleaner to filter dust and a humidifier. This adds moisture to the air.


Most importantly, follow the instructions of your eye specialist thoroughly to keep your eyes healthy. We hope that these tips will help you take better care of your eyes and avoid any discomfort.

Relieve Computer Eye Strain with These Tips

Best Retina Specialist in Kolkata

Modern workplaces require you to sit with your eyes glued to the computer screen for long. This makes your eyes feel tired, irritated, and strained. Computer Vision Syndrome is an annoyance affecting most of us. Though it doesn’t cause major eye damages; however, staring at the computer screen for too long may give you blurred vision, neck, head, and shoulder pain, dry and burning eyes. This affects your overall well-being and productivity at work.

The good news is, computer eye strain can be easily relieved. Want to know the tricks? Read on:

1. Get your eyes tested

Eye problems, howsoever minor it may be, should NEVER be ignored. Having a routine and thorough eye examination is the best thing you can do to keep your eyes safe and healthy. At least once in a year, you should get your eyes tested by the best retina specialist in Kolkata. If your job requires you to stare constantly at the computer screen, then you must schedule an appointment with the eye specialist at least once a year or as per directed by the doctor. While examination, let the doctor know how often you use a computer and other electronic gadgets (such as tablets and smartphone) at work and home. Measure the distance of your screen from your eyes (both at home and work) and let the doctor know that measurement.

2. Find the Best Viewing Angle

The angle at which you view your computer screen is very important. If the viewing angle is not correct, you can get CVS. To get the best viewing angle the centre of the computer screen should be at a distance of 20-28 inches from your eyes and just 4-5 inches below your eye level. If you are writing something that requires you to shift your eyes between the screen and the reference material then keep those documents in a way where you can see them easily without moving your head too much.

3. Ensure Proper Lighting

Excessive bright or dim light can make your eyes work hard to see clearly. Be it harsh interior lights or sunlight coming through the window; it puts your eyes under lots of strain. While using a computer, keep the ambient lighting just half as bright as we find in typical workplaces. Eliminate the scope of outdoor light by closing the drapes. Use fewer bulbs or fluorescent tubes or low-intensity bulbs when working indoor. If possible, the keep your computer screen in a position so that the windows are to the side and not in front of it or behind it.

4. Check the Display of your screen

Still stuck to an old tube-style monitor or cathode ray tube (CRT)? If yes, then ditch that immediately and shift to a flat-panel LCD. These screens are easier on the eyes and come with an anti-reflective surface. CRT screens flicker and cause eye strain. Whenever buying a computer screen, choose a flat panel display that has a high resolution. Always buy a large display. If you are buying a desktop, get a screen that is at least 19 inches.

5. Adjust the display setting properly

Adjusting the display setting of your computer is essential for reducing computer eye strain. This helps in reducing eye strain. Adjust the brightness of the screen in a way that it matches the brightness of your surroundings. Adjust the text size and the contrast of the screen appropriately. Lower the colour temperature of your display. This reduces the amount of blue light emitted by the screen. This increases the comfort level of your eyes and relieves strain.

6. Blink Often

While working on the computer screen, there are times when we forget to blink and keep gazing at the screen. This makes your eyes dry, thus, increasing eye strain and a burning sensation. Do not do this. Blink often. This keeps your eyes moist. The tears in your eyes dry quickly causing dry eye. Also, the air of the environment you are working in may be dry, which might aggravate the condition. If you are experiencing these symptoms, visit an eye specialist. The eye doctor might give your artificial tears to keep your eyes moist.

7. Try the 20-20-20 rule for relieving strain

Constantly focusing on the computer screen increases eye strain. Do not do that. Look away from the screen every 20 minutes. Look at something that is at least 20 feet away from you for 20 seconds. This relaxes the focusing muscles in your eyes and helps relieve eye strain.

Another easy exercise for relieving eye strain is to look at a distant object for about 10-15 seconds and then look at something nearby. Then again look at some distant object. Repeat this for a few times to relax your eyes. Remember to blink while doing these exercises.

8. Take Breaks

Do not work at a stretch. Take frequent breaks. This helps relieve computer eye strain along with shoulder and back pain. While working for long hours in front of the computer, take short breaks of 5 minutes. During those breaks, stand up, move around, and stretch your arms, legs, neck, and shoulder. This helps reduce muscle tension and fatigue.

9. Get Customised computer glasses

This will provide relief to your eyes. Visit an eye specialist to get your glasses modified (if you wear one). Even if you do not wear glasses then get computer glasses for blocking the harsh blue light and minimising eye strain.

10. Get enough Nutrients

Getting the proper amount of vitamins and nutrients are essential for your eye health. Consider taking vitamins that are rich in antioxidants. Vitamins A, C, and E (with a B complex) can help keep your eyes safe and reduce eye strain.

Best Retina Specialist in Kolkata

Looking for the best retina specialist in Kolkata for consulting about your eye problems? You can get in touch with the retina specialists at Disha Eye Hospital, a place for all your eye care needs. Book an appointment today at

Protect your Vision When you have Diabetes

Disha Eye Hospital

Our eyes are sensitive and delicate by nature, and diabetes can cause damage to them. Diabetes can impose great harm to eye health by causing vision impairment and even vision loss.

According to WebMD, diabetes is a primary cause of blindness in adults aged from 20 to 74. There are several types of eye diseases associated with diabetes including Diabetic Macular Edema, Diabetic Retinopathy, cataract, and glaucoma. NIH also states that all forms of diabetic eye disease can cause severe vision loss and blindness.

Here are some of the ways how you should protect your vision when you have diabetes.

1) Practice good diabetes management
diabetes management
Diabetes increases the sugar levels in the blood which can cause the tiny blood vessels in your eyes to suffer from serious damage. In most cases, it’s often unmanaged diabetes that triggers the onset of eye complications such as diabetic retinopathy which causes the blood vessels in the retina to leak blood.

So, one of the best ways for protecting your vision is to keep your blood sugar level in check. Maintain a strict routine for checking your blood sugar as high blood sugar can alter the shape of the eyes’ lens which can cause blurry vision. Also, you need to make sure that you maintain a healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

You should also consult with your doctor. When your doctor knows that you have diabetes, he/she can be prepared to offer appropriate screenings to monitor eye health. Doing so can eventually lower the risk of developing eye complications.

2) Have regular dilated eye examination

According to American Academy of Ophthalmology, Diabetic Retinopathy doesn’t have any symptoms during the early stages. So, you may never know that you have Diabetic Retinopathy unless severity such as vision impairment starts to appear.

So, the best way to prevent the onset of Diabetic Retinopathy is to do timely dilated eye exam. During a dilated eye exam, your doctor conducts a thorough examination of the retina and optic nerve – mainly for checking signs of damage before it worsens. When you have your eye health under scrutiny, your doctor can arrange treatment for treating the disease when it’s not reached the advanced stage.

3) Boost eye health with proper diet
Boost eye health
Apart from managing your blood sugar levels and undergoing regular dilated eye exam, you should also eat healthy food. Maintaining a well-balanced diet that is rich in nutrients can boost eye health which, in turn, can significantly reduce the risk of diabetic eye diseases.

According to Healthline, our eyes require several antioxidants to stay healthy. These include Zinc, Vitamin A, C, E, zeaxanthin, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, and beta-carotene. Foods that boost eye health include fish (particularly salmon), kale, carrots, eggs, oranges and almonds.

In general, you have to include leafy vegetables, lean meat, and colourful fruits in your diet for boosting your eye health.

4) Exercise regularly
Eye protection
Exercise is the ultimate answer to maintaining good health and managing diabetes. Interestingly, exercise is good for your eye health as well – according to American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Although exercise might not benefit eye health directly, it can help in lowering blood sugar levels (in case of diabetes) which, in turn, improves your eye health. So, make sure that you exercise regularly. You can set a routine as to when you can manage your time and exercise for at least 30 minutes a day.

Your exercise regime doesn’t necessarily have to include heavy workouts. Light to moderate-intensity workouts including brisk walking, jogging, running, cycling and swimming are good for eye health. Moderate intensity exercise such as running and jogging can help in reducing eye pressure in young adults.

5) Eye protection
Eye protection
As discussed above, our eyes are delicate and therefore need great care, especially in case of diabetic patients. Apart from maintaining a good eye health, you have to be concerned about protecting your eyes as well, and the best way to do such is to wear sunglasses.

Sunglasses are more than a fashion accessory as they play a key role in protecting your eyes from harmful UV rays. According to NIH, a study funded in part by NEI (National Eye Institute) found out that chronic exposure to sunlight can increase the risk of cataract. What’s more surprising is that people with diabetes stand at a greater risk of triggering eye complication with exposure to the UV rays.

So, it is important that you wear sunglasses whenever you go outside, even if it’s cloudy as UV rays can pass through thin clouds and haze. It is even better if you are able to get your hands on frames that come with a close-fitting wraparound style as UV rays can even affect the sensitive skin surrounding the eyelid which can cause skin cancer.

6) Quit smoking
Quit smoking
Quitting smoking should be one of the first priorities in the prospect of preventing diabetic eye disease. Apart from imposing a serious threat to overall health, smoking also deteriorates eye health, especially in case of diabetic patients.

According to Healthline, smoking can potentially accelerate the development of diabetic retinopathy and worsen the disease. Over time, worsening of diabetic retinopathy can eventually lead to blindness. So, it is a must that you quit smoking and other tobacco-related products.

If you are one of those who finds it impossible to quit smoking, you can undergo therapies that help you get over with it. You can even take over-the-counter aids and nicotine gums for extra help. But you need to be aware of the fact that nicotine raises blood sugar. So, you need to cut off your consumption on nicotine-related aids once you quit smoking.

Get your eyes regularly checked at Disha Eye Hospital even though you feel your vision is normal.

10 Frequently Asked Questions on Myopia

LASIK Eye Surgery in Kolkata

Myopia is the condition where the distant objects appear blurry and out of focus. This is caused when the eyes are longer than usual. As a result, the distance between the cornea and your retina is greater than in normal eyes. LASIK eye surgery can rectify myopia.

Here are a few frequently asked questions on Myopia:

1. What causes Myopia?

Nearsightedness or Myopia is caused when the shape of your eyeball is more than normal eyeballs. However, in some cases, myopia is also caused by a change in the cornea or the lens. Due to these problems, the light rays entering the eye focus in front of the retina instead focusing directly on it.

2. What are the symptoms of Myopia?

The initial symptom of Myopia is blurred vision. When you look at distant objects, it will appear blurred. You will find yourself squinting and frowning while looking at distant images and objects. You will get frequent headaches, and you won’t be able to read books or newspaper properly without holding it too close to your eyes.

3. When do we develop Myopia?

Usually, nearsightedness begins in your childhood, between the ages of 6 to 12. While you are in your teenage, your eyeballs grow quickly. At that time either it will grow quickly or get worse quickly. By the time you reach 20 years, myopia stops getting worse. Most of the time, the condition stabilises at mild or moderate levels.


4. What are the treatment options for myopia?

Usually, the eye specialist prescribes glasses and corrective lenses for correcting myopic vision. These lenses and glasses help in focusing the images directly onto your retina so that you can see properly. However, these glasses and lenses do not cure the condition. You need to wear them for doing certain activities such as driving a car or reading distant boards or for viewing things located far away.

Apart from these, the doctors may also suggest surgical procedures for vision correction. The most common process for treating myopia is Laser in-Situ Keratomileusis or LASIK eye surgery. Another process used for treating Myopic vision is PRK or Photorefractive Keratectomy.

5. What is LASIK eye surgery?

LASIK eye surgery is commonly used for correcting vision related problems such as Myopia, Hyperopia, and Astigmatism. In this procedure, the cornea of your eye is reshaped so that that light that is entering the eye focuses directly on the retina and you get a clear vision. This is a painless procedure and takes only 15 minutes to complete. The eye surgeon will cut a circular flap on your cornea and then removes some of the corneal tissue using an excimer laser. For myopic vision, the surgeon flattens the cornea, and for farsightedness, the surgeon makes it steeper. There are many places in Kolkata where LASIK eye surgery is performed.


6. What is Photorefractive Keratectomy and how it helps?

Like LASIK eye surgery, PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) too works by reshaping the cornea using an excimer laser. The only difference between LASIK and PRK is the initial steps of the procedure. In LASIK, the surgeon cuts a thin flap in the cornea using a microkeratome or a femtosecond laser. In PRK, the eye surgeon cuts the outer layer of the cornea and discards is before reshaping the corneal tissue using excimer laser. The top layer grows back in a few days after the surgery. And that is why recovery of PRK takes longer than LASIK.

Another variation of PRK called LASEK is also performed. In this procedure, the surgeon lifts the outer epithelial layer and preserves it. At the end of the surgery, the layer is them put back on the eye surface.


7. Can we prevent Myopia?

The development of myopia depends on your genes and your environment. There is no way that you can prevent Myopia. However, you can definitely prevent it from worsening. Use glasses and contact lenses prescribed by the doctor. Remember that, glasses and contact lenses won’t cure the condition, but they will help you enjoy better vision.


8. How is myopia diagnosed?

The doctor will perform a thorough eye check-up for diagnosing myopia. The eye examination may begin with a visual acuity test. In this test, the eye doctor may use a standardised chart of letters of varied size. You will be asked to cover one eye and read that chart aloud. If the test results show that you have myopia, then the doctor will use a retinoscope to examine your eyes. Using that retinoscope, the doctor will throw light into your eyes and evaluate the reflection off the retina. This is used for determining the degree of refractive error in your eyes.

9. What is Degenerative Myopia?

Also known as pathological or malignant myopia, this condition is very rare. This is mostly inherited, and symptoms begin to appear in early childhood. In this condition, your eyeball elongates rapidly, thus causing severe myopia. The condition gets worse usually by teenage or youth. This condition may even get worse during your adult years. People with this condition are highly susceptible to retinal detachment and other conditions such as glaucoma and choroid neovascularization (an abnormal growth of blood vessel).

10. What is High Myopia?

This is a severe form of myopia. In this condition, your eyeball keeps growing and elongates from front to back. This increases your risk for retinal detachment and an early development of other eye conditions such as glaucoma and cataracts.


LASIK Eye Surgery in Kolkata

Looking for places where you can undergo LASIK eye surgery in Kolkata? If yes, then book an appointment with Disha Eye Hospital. They have a team of highly qualified experts and eye surgeons dedicated to resolving any eye problems. If you want to know LASIK eye surgery cost or want to book an appointment at Disha Eye Hospital, visit

Frequently asked Questions about Eye Care

cataract surgery in Kolkata

Worried about your eye health? Here you will find all information that you will require for taking care of your eyes. Take a look:

FAQ on Eye care

1. How Often should I need to test my eyes?

As per the American Optometric Association adults who wear glasses or contact lenses and adults who are over 60 years should visit their eye care specialist every year or as suggested by the doctor. If the person doesn’t require any vision correction, then a person between 18 and 60 years should visit the doctor twice a year.


2. What is Cataract?

The cataract is an eye condition that causes cloudiness of the lenses in your eye. This prevents the light from passing to the retina, causing blurred or poor vision. Like your age, you develop cataract naturally. Sometimes, the cloudiness is very small, and it’s hard to notice. However, in its advanced stage, you may feel like you are like constantly viewing the world through a foggy window.


3. What are the symptoms of Cataract?

There are several symptoms of cataract:

  • A vision that is cloudy and foggy
  • Light sensitivity. Glare from sun and lamps may cause serious discomfort
  • Difficulty in driving during the night due to glare from headlights.
  • Frequent changes in your prescription for eyeglass
  • Double vision.
  • Initial improvement in near vision which then gets worse
  • Difficulty in carrying out daily activities due to vision problems


You should never ignore symptoms of cataract. Many good hospitals perform cataract surgery in Kolkata. You can check cataract surgery cost in Kolkata before undergoing the treatment. Any delay may result in serious implications.

4. Do I need surgery for Cataract? How would I know that?

Yes, you need to undergo surgery for removing the cataract from your eye. You have to consult an eye doctor first. He or she will conduct various tests, review your complete medical history for determining whether you need a vision correctional surgery or not. After that, he or she will discuss the various options that are available and is best for you.


5. What is Myopia or Nearsightedness?

Myopia is a visual error in which the distant objects look blurry as the visual image is focused in front of the retina rather than on retina. This condition normally occurs when the length of the eye is more than the optical length.

6. What is Hyperopia or farsightedness?

This is a condition that results when the visual image is focused behind the retina rather than on the retina. It may be caused due to a small eyeball having a weak focusing power being. This is a condition which is often present from birth. Farsighted people can see distant objects clearly, but the near objects are blurred.


7. What is Presbyopia?

The word Presbyopia means “old eye” in Greek. This is a condition when your eyes gradually lose the ability to see nearby things. This is a normal part of ageing. You may start developing presbyopia shortly after crossing the age 40.


8. What is the difference between Hyperopia and Presbyopia?

The causes and age of developing both the conditions mark the difference between them. Hyperopia is caused when the eye is shorter than normal while Presbyopia is the normal ageing process of the eye. While Hyperopia can happen even in childhood, Presbyopia happens only after the age of 40 years.

9. My eyes are fine, then why do I need to visit the doctor regularly?

This is because through regular and thorough examination the doctor can diagnose silent diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and other eye conditions in its early stage. These conditions do not have any initial symptoms and are impossible to diagnose without thorough check up.

10. What is Macular Degeneration?

This is a condition where the macula of your eyes breaks down causing a sudden or a gradual loss of central vision. Macular degeneration is of two forms: wet and dry. Patients need to undergo a detailed retinal eye examination to determine whether they have macular degeneration or not.

11. Who are at risk of developing Macular Degeneration?

People who are older than 55 years are most likely to suffer from macular degeneration. Apart from that, people with a family history of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are susceptible to developing this condition. Caucasians are most likely to get AMD compared to African-Americans and Hispanics. Smoking too increases the risk of AMD.


12. I have noticed small spots floating in front of my eyes. Is this a cause for concern?

Eye floaters are tiny specks and spots that keep floating in your field of vision. These are annoying at times but usually are harmless. These occur when tiny pieces of the gel-like vitreous of your eyes break loose. However, if you notice flashing spots, then you should immediately consult an eye doctor.


13. What causes dry eyes?

The tears in your eyes keep them lubricated and moist. That keeps your eyes comfortable. Dry eyes are caused when your eyes are not producing enough tears. You may notice a blurred vision, light sensitivity, redness, and itching in your eyes. Any disbalance in your tear-flow system can cause dry eyes. Other causes include natural ageing process, conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and collagen vascular diseases; less blinking or staring at computer screens or any other object for a long time without blinking.

14. How to treat dry eyes?

The doctor may give you artificial tears and ointments to keep your eyes lubricated. The doctor may even opt for a procedure called temporary punctal occlusion to treat your condition.


Cataract Surgery in Kolkata

Planning to undergo cataract surgery in Kolkata? If yes, then you can book an appointment with the eye surgeons and experts at Disha Eye Hospital. To know more about cataract surgery cost in Kolkata or for booking an appointment, visit