35 Facts on Burning Eyes

35 Facts on Burning Eyes

Our eyes are one of the most sensitive organs in our body. It is made up of many delicate tissues and some of them are exposed. The outermost part of the eyes (which is exposed and which is visible to us) is covered by a very thin and transparent layer called the Conjunctiva. Moreover, we also have the eyelids to protect our eyes. Despite this, our eyes are prone to injuries, discomfort, and strain. Out of all, the most common eye discomfort that we experience is a burning sensation in the eye. This can be mild as well as severe. This often starts as a sensation of heat in your eyes and eventually feels like burning. Although eye burning is a nonemergency condition; however, if it continues, then that could be a sign of a serious underlying eye condition.

Here is a complete guide to Eye Burning:

What’s the difference between burning and heat sensation in eyes?

1. Eye Burning: A burning sensation in the eyes indicate inflammation or eye irritation. If anything gets into your eyes or in case of any other kind of inflammation, a burning sensation in the eyes is the first thing that you will experience before it starts to pain If the inflammation or irritation is severe, then only you will experience pain. A burning sensation in the eye is a warning that your eyes are under strain and you need to visit the eye specialist for further investigation.

2. Heat Sensation in Eyes:
While eye burning is an excessive sensation of heat in the eyes, sometimes you may feel like heat is radiating out of your eyes. This heat sensation in the eyes is often followed by burning in the eyes. If you feel like heat is emanating from your eyes, then it’s an indication that your eyes irritated but to a lesser extent. Visit a doctor immediately otherwise the situation may get worse.

Source: http://www.healthhype.com/burning-eyes-and-heat-sensation-in-one-or-both-eyes.html

Why do the Eyes burn? – Causes of Eye Burning

Your eyes may burn for several reasons. Sometimes, the reasons are easy to tell. For instance, your eyes may burn if some chemical (contained in shampoos, cream, sunscreen lotions, and the water in the swimming pool) get into your eyes. Also, if you frequently use eye makeup, then also there is a scope of chemicals getting into your eyes (through eye makeup and cleansing products). However, there are many other reasons for eye burning. They are:

3. Eye Strain

This is the most common cause of burning eyes or a sensation of heat in your eyes. Eye strain may occur regularly or occasionally depending on the situation. Several every-day situations may cause eye strain. This includes:

  • Watching television continuously, reading a book or staring at the computer or laptop or smartphone screen for long hours.
  • Reading in low light.
  • Eyesight problems may also cause eye burning. Problems such as nearsightedness or myopia, astigmatism, and farsightedness or hyperopia may cause eye burning, especially when you are not using contact lenses or corrective glasses.
  • Exposure to bright lights and sunlight without wearing sunglasses may also cause eye burning.

4. Allergies

Allergies often irritate your eyes. It irritates the lining of the eyes and often occurs along with conditions such as allergic rhinitis. This irritates both the eyes and the nose causing symptoms such as a runny nose, sneezing and burning of the eyes. This condition of the eye is also known as allergic conjunctivitis. In this condition, the eyes produce histamine for fighting allergens and that’s why the conjunctiva of the eyes becomes red and swollen. Your eyes may also feel like burning. Allergic conjunctivitis doesn’t spread from person to person. Exposure to substances such as pet hair, pollen, dust, and moulds may cause an allergic reaction.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/allergies

5. Medication

Many medications that you might be taking may cause eye problems as a result of side effects, visit https://nygoodhealth.com. The most common side effects are dry eyes. This makes your eyes prone to infections and burning. Some of the drugs that may cause burning in your eyes and other problems include:

  • Antihypertensives
  • Diuretics
  • Sedatives
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Antihistamines
  • Beta blockers
  • Phenothiazines
  • Nasal decongestants
  • Isotretinoin
  • Atropine
  • Painkillers

Source: http://www.healthhype.com/burning-eyes-and-heat-sensation-in-one-or-both-eyes.html

6. Eye infection

Eye infection is another cause of eye burning, itching and discharge. Eye infections may be caused due to several factors including:

  • • A virus such as the herpes simplex virus that causes cold sores may also cause eye burning and other eye issues.
  • Bacterial infection
  • Parasite or Fungal infection due to contaminated contact lenses
  • Using unclean contact lenses
  • Using expired eye drops
  • Sharing contact lenses
  • Wearing contact lenses for longer hours
  • Sharing eye makeup

7. Eye injury

Any injury to the eye area may also cause eye burning, itching, and discharge. Eye injuries may occur while playing sports or working with chemicals. This is the reason it’s essential to wear protective eye glasses in such situations. If you wear contact lenses, you may even injure your eyes with your fingernail during putting in or taking out your contact lenses.

Source: http://www.healthline.com/symptom/eye-burning-sensation

Eye Burning may also indicate other underlying causes such as:

8. Pterygium and Pinguecula

This condition is also known as Surfer’s Eye. Pinguecula and pterygium are growths on your conjunctiva.

Pinguecula is a yellow spot or bumps on your conjunctiva. This often appears on the side of the eye, close to the nose. It is a protein, fat, or calcium deposit on the conjunctiva.

Pterygium is a fleshy growth of tissue. It may start as a pinguecula and then eventually, grow. It may be a small growth or even become large enough to cover a part of the cornea. This may affect your vision.
Both these conditions are caused when you have dry eyes. These growths may cause by exposure to dust, wind, and harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. To prevent such growths, you must:

  • wear sunglasses with maximum UV protection whenever going out
  • Wear glasses or goggles to protect your eyes from dust
  • use artificial tears to keep your eyes dry

source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/pinguecula-pterygium

9. Blepharitis

We all have bacteria on our skin. However, there are people who have more bacteria at the base of their eyelashes. Blepharitis is a condition caused by the presence of bacteria and oily flakes at the base of your eyelashes. As a result, the eyelids swell and become red. It may also feel like your eyes are burning. People with oily skin, dandruff, and dry eyes often suffer from this condition. People with this condition may have dandruff-like flakes on their eyelashes. Also, problematic oil glands in the eyelids may lead to blepharitis.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-blepharitis

10. Dry Eyes

Dry eyes are yet another cause of eye burning. Your eyes need tears to stay healthy and comfortable. When your eyes do not produce enough tears it causes dry eye. You may get dry eyes if your eyes do not make the right type of tears. Hormonal changes often result in dry eyes. While both men and women can get dry eye but women are more prone to this condition, especially those who have undergone menopause.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/dry-eye-causes

Treating Eye Burning

There are several ways for treating eye burning. If your condition is not so serious, then you may even treat a mild eye burn at home.

Treating Burning Eyes at Home

11. Apply cool compresses on your eyes. This soothes burning and itching.

12. Apply warm compress. This helps in soften crusts (if there are any).

13. Use baby shampoo for washing the eyelids. Use cotton applicator for removing crusts from eyes.

14. Use artificial tears at least 4 to 6 times a day. This helps in treating burning and itchy eyes and other conditions related to dry eyes.

15. If you have allergies then stay away from pets, cosmetics, and grass. Your doctor may give you antihistamine eye drops for treating allergies.

16. If you have conjunctivitis, then wash your hand before and after touching your eyes and avoid touching the unaffected eye for the first few days.

Source: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003034.htm

17. Let your eyes rest for a while. Close your eyelids and rest in a dimly lit or dark room. This helps ease burning eyes.

18. Never rub the eyes or eyelids when it’s itching.

19. Start using sunglasses immediately. This will help avoid further irritation.

20. Use non-medicated eye drops for keeping the eyes moisturised.

21. Washing the eyes with water. This soothes the eyes and removes debris. However, do not repeat more than once or twice.

22. If your eyes are burning, immediately remove contact lenses. Start using glasses if the burning is intense and cause tear and redness in the eyes.

Source: http://www.healthhype.com/burning-eyes-and-heat-sensation-in-one-or-both-eyes.html

When to Visit the Doctor?

If home treatment doesn’t soothe your eyes then there is something seriously wrong with them. Visit a doctor immediately if you experience the following symptoms:

23. If the burning sensation is accompanied by pain or excessive light sensitivity, then visit an eye specialist immediately. Consult a doctor if you experience blurred and double vision, have any eye discharge, see eye floaters or flashes of light or any other unexpected symptoms.

24. Even if you do not experience these additional symptoms but your eyes are burning for more than a few days, contact your eye doctor immediately.
For diagnosing the exact cause of the burning eyes, your eye doctor may perform the following eye exams:

  • Slit lamp exam
  • Visual field exam
  • Eye motion
  • Eyelid
  • Reaction of your pupils to light

The doctor may also check your conjunctiva, cornea, and your vision.


Ways to Prevent Burning Eyes

Here are several tips to help you avoid a burning sensation in your eyes:

25. Avoid any kind of environment that you know may cause burning eyes.

26. Visit your eye doctor regularly. If the burning sensation is caused any underlying condition, only a doctor can find out the reason that’s causing the burning sensation.

27. If you wear contact lenses, inform your doctor about the symptoms that you’re experiencing.

28. Do not discontinue medication or switch contact lens solutions. If you are experiencing eye irritation or eye burning, let your doctor know. They will prescribe you a different solution or medication.

29. Wear goggles, sunglass, face mask or any other eye wear whenever you are going out or participating in any outdoor activity. This helps in reducing light sensitivity and risk of injury.

30. Eat a well-balanced diet. Learn more about vitamins and nutrients that are healthy for your eyes. Include them in your diet.

31. If you suffer from any a condition which is causing a burning sensation in your eyes (such as dry eye syndrome), try to control the conditions. This will help in reducing the symptoms.

32. If any changes occur in your vision or eyes, NEVER ignore that.
Source: http://www.eyehealthweb.com/burning-eyes/

33. When working on a computer screen:

  • Always put it about 20-26 inches away from your eyes and just a bit below your eyes level.
  • Regularly clean off the dust from the surface of the computer. Dust accumulation on the surface of the monitor may reduce contrast and create problems such as glare and reflections.
  • Always go for screens that tilt and swivel.
  • Always use glare filter for your screen.

34. Change your work environment.

  • Change the lighting of your environment to avoid glare and harsh reflections.
  • Always use an adjustable chair.

35. Change your work habits.

  • When working on a computer, try the 20-20-20 rule. Every 20 minutes, look at any object about 20 feet away for at least 20 seconds.
  • Blink often.
  • Take regular breaks and look away from the computer screen.
  • To prevent dry eyes when indoor, use an air cleaner to filter dust and a humidifier. This adds moisture to the air.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/eye-fatigue-causes-symptoms-treatment#2-4

Most importantly, follow the instructions of your eye specialist thoroughly to keep your eyes healthy. We hope that these tips will help you take better care of your eyes and avoid any discomfort.

Relieve Computer Eye Strain with These Tips

Best Retina Specialist in Kolkata

Modern workplaces require you to sit with your eyes glued to the computer screen for long. This makes your eyes feel tired, irritated, and strained. Computer Vision Syndrome is an annoyance affecting most of us. Though it doesn’t cause major eye damages; however, staring at the computer screen for too long may give you blurred vision, neck, head, and shoulder pain, dry and burning eyes. This affects your overall well-being and productivity at work.

The good news is, computer eye strain can be easily relieved. Want to know the tricks? Read on:

1. Get your eyes tested

Eye problems, howsoever minor it may be, should NEVER be ignored. Having a routine and thorough eye examination is the best thing you can do to keep your eyes safe and healthy. At least once in a year, you should get your eyes tested by the best retina specialist in Kolkata. If your job requires you to stare constantly at the computer screen, then you must schedule an appointment with the eye specialist at least once a year or as per directed by the doctor. While examination, let the doctor know how often you use a computer and other electronic gadgets (such as tablets and smartphone) at work and home. Measure the distance of your screen from your eyes (both at home and work) and let the doctor know that measurement.

2. Find the Best Viewing Angle

The angle at which you view your computer screen is very important. If the viewing angle is not correct, you can get CVS. To get the best viewing angle the centre of the computer screen should be at a distance of 20-28 inches from your eyes and just 4-5 inches below your eye level. If you are writing something that requires you to shift your eyes between the screen and the reference material then keep those documents in a way where you can see them easily without moving your head too much.

3. Ensure Proper Lighting

Excessive bright or dim light can make your eyes work hard to see clearly. Be it harsh interior lights or sunlight coming through the window; it puts your eyes under lots of strain. While using a computer, keep the ambient lighting just half as bright as we find in typical workplaces. Eliminate the scope of outdoor light by closing the drapes. Use fewer bulbs or fluorescent tubes or low-intensity bulbs when working indoor. If possible, the keep your computer screen in a position so that the windows are to the side and not in front of it or behind it.

4. Check the Display of your screen

Still stuck to an old tube-style monitor or cathode ray tube (CRT)? If yes, then ditch that immediately and shift to a flat-panel LCD. These screens are easier on the eyes and come with an anti-reflective surface. CRT screens flicker and cause eye strain. Whenever buying a computer screen, choose a flat panel display that has a high resolution. Always buy a large display. If you are buying a desktop, get a screen that is at least 19 inches.

5. Adjust the display setting properly

Adjusting the display setting of your computer is essential for reducing computer eye strain. This helps in reducing eye strain. Adjust the brightness of the screen in a way that it matches the brightness of your surroundings. Adjust the text size and the contrast of the screen appropriately. Lower the colour temperature of your display. This reduces the amount of blue light emitted by the screen. This increases the comfort level of your eyes and relieves strain.

6. Blink Often

While working on the computer screen, there are times when we forget to blink and keep gazing at the screen. This makes your eyes dry, thus, increasing eye strain and a burning sensation. Do not do this. Blink often. This keeps your eyes moist. The tears in your eyes dry quickly causing dry eye. Also, the air of the environment you are working in may be dry, which might aggravate the condition. If you are experiencing these symptoms, visit an eye specialist. The eye doctor might give your artificial tears to keep your eyes moist.

7. Try the 20-20-20 rule for relieving strain

Constantly focusing on the computer screen increases eye strain. Do not do that. Look away from the screen every 20 minutes. Look at something that is at least 20 feet away from you for 20 seconds. This relaxes the focusing muscles in your eyes and helps relieve eye strain.

Another easy exercise for relieving eye strain is to look at a distant object for about 10-15 seconds and then look at something nearby. Then again look at some distant object. Repeat this for a few times to relax your eyes. Remember to blink while doing these exercises.

8. Take Breaks

Do not work at a stretch. Take frequent breaks. This helps relieve computer eye strain along with shoulder and back pain. While working for long hours in front of the computer, take short breaks of 5 minutes. During those breaks, stand up, move around, and stretch your arms, legs, neck, and shoulder. This helps reduce muscle tension and fatigue.

9. Get Customised computer glasses

This will provide relief to your eyes. Visit an eye specialist to get your glasses modified (if you wear one). Even if you do not wear glasses then get computer glasses for blocking the harsh blue light and minimising eye strain.

10. Get enough Nutrients

Getting the proper amount of vitamins and nutrients are essential for your eye health. Consider taking vitamins that are rich in antioxidants. Vitamins A, C, and E (with a B complex) can help keep your eyes safe and reduce eye strain.

Best Retina Specialist in Kolkata

Looking for the best retina specialist in Kolkata for consulting about your eye problems? You can get in touch with the retina specialists at Disha Eye Hospital, a place for all your eye care needs. Book an appointment today at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

Protect your Vision When you have Diabetes

Disha Eye Hospital

Our eyes are sensitive and delicate by nature, and diabetes can cause damage to them. Diabetes can impose great harm to eye health by causing vision impairment and even vision loss.

According to WebMD, diabetes is a primary cause of blindness in adults aged from 20 to 74. There are several types of eye diseases associated with diabetes including Diabetic Macular Edema, Diabetic Retinopathy, cataract, and glaucoma. NIH also states that all forms of diabetic eye disease can cause severe vision loss and blindness.

Here are some of the ways how you should protect your vision when you have diabetes.

1) Practice good diabetes management
diabetes management
Diabetes increases the sugar levels in the blood which can cause the tiny blood vessels in your eyes to suffer from serious damage. In most cases, it’s often unmanaged diabetes that triggers the onset of eye complications such as diabetic retinopathy which causes the blood vessels in the retina to leak blood.

So, one of the best ways for protecting your vision is to keep your blood sugar level in check. Maintain a strict routine for checking your blood sugar as high blood sugar can alter the shape of the eyes’ lens which can cause blurry vision. Also, you need to make sure that you maintain a healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

You should also consult with your doctor. When your doctor knows that you have diabetes, he/she can be prepared to offer appropriate screenings to monitor eye health. Doing so can eventually lower the risk of developing eye complications.

2) Have regular dilated eye examination

According to American Academy of Ophthalmology, Diabetic Retinopathy doesn’t have any symptoms during the early stages. So, you may never know that you have Diabetic Retinopathy unless severity such as vision impairment starts to appear.

So, the best way to prevent the onset of Diabetic Retinopathy is to do timely dilated eye exam. During a dilated eye exam, your doctor conducts a thorough examination of the retina and optic nerve – mainly for checking signs of damage before it worsens. When you have your eye health under scrutiny, your doctor can arrange treatment for treating the disease when it’s not reached the advanced stage.

3) Boost eye health with proper diet
Boost eye health
Apart from managing your blood sugar levels and undergoing regular dilated eye exam, you should also eat healthy food. Maintaining a well-balanced diet that is rich in nutrients can boost eye health which, in turn, can significantly reduce the risk of diabetic eye diseases.

According to Healthline, our eyes require several antioxidants to stay healthy. These include Zinc, Vitamin A, C, E, zeaxanthin, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, and beta-carotene. Foods that boost eye health include fish (particularly salmon), kale, carrots, eggs, oranges and almonds.

In general, you have to include leafy vegetables, lean meat, and colourful fruits in your diet for boosting your eye health.

4) Exercise regularly
Eye protection
Exercise is the ultimate answer to maintaining good health and managing diabetes. Interestingly, exercise is good for your eye health as well – according to American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Although exercise might not benefit eye health directly, it can help in lowering blood sugar levels (in case of diabetes) which, in turn, improves your eye health. So, make sure that you exercise regularly. You can set a routine as to when you can manage your time and exercise for at least 30 minutes a day.

Your exercise regime doesn’t necessarily have to include heavy workouts. Light to moderate-intensity workouts including brisk walking, jogging, running, cycling and swimming are good for eye health. Moderate intensity exercise such as running and jogging can help in reducing eye pressure in young adults.

5) Eye protection
Eye protection
As discussed above, our eyes are delicate and therefore need great care, especially in case of diabetic patients. Apart from maintaining a good eye health, you have to be concerned about protecting your eyes as well, and the best way to do such is to wear sunglasses.

Sunglasses are more than a fashion accessory as they play a key role in protecting your eyes from harmful UV rays. According to NIH, a study funded in part by NEI (National Eye Institute) found out that chronic exposure to sunlight can increase the risk of cataract. What’s more surprising is that people with diabetes stand at a greater risk of triggering eye complication with exposure to the UV rays.

So, it is important that you wear sunglasses whenever you go outside, even if it’s cloudy as UV rays can pass through thin clouds and haze. It is even better if you are able to get your hands on frames that come with a close-fitting wraparound style as UV rays can even affect the sensitive skin surrounding the eyelid which can cause skin cancer.

6) Quit smoking
Quit smoking
Quitting smoking should be one of the first priorities in the prospect of preventing diabetic eye disease. Apart from imposing a serious threat to overall health, smoking also deteriorates eye health, especially in case of diabetic patients.

According to Healthline, smoking can potentially accelerate the development of diabetic retinopathy and worsen the disease. Over time, worsening of diabetic retinopathy can eventually lead to blindness. So, it is a must that you quit smoking and other tobacco-related products.

If you are one of those who finds it impossible to quit smoking, you can undergo therapies that help you get over with it. You can even take over-the-counter aids and nicotine gums for extra help. But you need to be aware of the fact that nicotine raises blood sugar. So, you need to cut off your consumption on nicotine-related aids once you quit smoking.

Get your eyes regularly checked at Disha Eye Hospital even though you feel your vision is normal.

10 Frequently Asked Questions on Myopia

LASIK Eye Surgery in Kolkata

Myopia is the condition where the distant objects appear blurry and out of focus. This is caused when the eyes are longer than usual. As a result, the distance between the cornea and your retina is greater than in normal eyes. LASIK eye surgery can rectify myopia.

Here are a few frequently asked questions on Myopia:

1. What causes Myopia?

Nearsightedness or Myopia is caused when the shape of your eyeball is more than normal eyeballs. However, in some cases, myopia is also caused by a change in the cornea or the lens. Due to these problems, the light rays entering the eye focus in front of the retina instead focusing directly on it.

2. What are the symptoms of Myopia?

The initial symptom of Myopia is blurred vision. When you look at distant objects, it will appear blurred. You will find yourself squinting and frowning while looking at distant images and objects. You will get frequent headaches, and you won’t be able to read books or newspaper properly without holding it too close to your eyes.

3. When do we develop Myopia?

Usually, nearsightedness begins in your childhood, between the ages of 6 to 12. While you are in your teenage, your eyeballs grow quickly. At that time either it will grow quickly or get worse quickly. By the time you reach 20 years, myopia stops getting worse. Most of the time, the condition stabilises at mild or moderate levels.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tc/nearsightedness-myopia-topic-overview#1

4. What are the treatment options for myopia?

Usually, the eye specialist prescribes glasses and corrective lenses for correcting myopic vision. These lenses and glasses help in focusing the images directly onto your retina so that you can see properly. However, these glasses and lenses do not cure the condition. You need to wear them for doing certain activities such as driving a car or reading distant boards or for viewing things located far away.

Apart from these, the doctors may also suggest surgical procedures for vision correction. The most common process for treating myopia is Laser in-Situ Keratomileusis or LASIK eye surgery. Another process used for treating Myopic vision is PRK or Photorefractive Keratectomy.

5. What is LASIK eye surgery?

LASIK eye surgery is commonly used for correcting vision related problems such as Myopia, Hyperopia, and Astigmatism. In this procedure, the cornea of your eye is reshaped so that that light that is entering the eye focuses directly on the retina and you get a clear vision. This is a painless procedure and takes only 15 minutes to complete. The eye surgeon will cut a circular flap on your cornea and then removes some of the corneal tissue using an excimer laser. For myopic vision, the surgeon flattens the cornea, and for farsightedness, the surgeon makes it steeper. There are many places in Kolkata where LASIK eye surgery is performed.

Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/visionsurgery/lasik.htm

6. What is Photorefractive Keratectomy and how it helps?

Like LASIK eye surgery, PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) too works by reshaping the cornea using an excimer laser. The only difference between LASIK and PRK is the initial steps of the procedure. In LASIK, the surgeon cuts a thin flap in the cornea using a microkeratome or a femtosecond laser. In PRK, the eye surgeon cuts the outer layer of the cornea and discards is before reshaping the corneal tissue using excimer laser. The top layer grows back in a few days after the surgery. And that is why recovery of PRK takes longer than LASIK.

Another variation of PRK called LASEK is also performed. In this procedure, the surgeon lifts the outer epithelial layer and preserves it. At the end of the surgery, the layer is them put back on the eye surface.

Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/visionsurgery/prk.htm

7. Can we prevent Myopia?

The development of myopia depends on your genes and your environment. There is no way that you can prevent Myopia. However, you can definitely prevent it from worsening. Use glasses and contact lenses prescribed by the doctor. Remember that, glasses and contact lenses won’t cure the condition, but they will help you enjoy better vision.

Source: https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/myopia/common-myopia-myths/common-myopia-myths?sso=y

8. How is myopia diagnosed?

The doctor will perform a thorough eye check-up for diagnosing myopia. The eye examination may begin with a visual acuity test. In this test, the eye doctor may use a standardised chart of letters of varied size. You will be asked to cover one eye and read that chart aloud. If the test results show that you have myopia, then the doctor will use a retinoscope to examine your eyes. Using that retinoscope, the doctor will throw light into your eyes and evaluate the reflection off the retina. This is used for determining the degree of refractive error in your eyes.

9. What is Degenerative Myopia?

Also known as pathological or malignant myopia, this condition is very rare. This is mostly inherited, and symptoms begin to appear in early childhood. In this condition, your eyeball elongates rapidly, thus causing severe myopia. The condition gets worse usually by teenage or youth. This condition may even get worse during your adult years. People with this condition are highly susceptible to retinal detachment and other conditions such as glaucoma and choroid neovascularization (an abnormal growth of blood vessel).

10. What is High Myopia?

This is a severe form of myopia. In this condition, your eyeball keeps growing and elongates from front to back. This increases your risk for retinal detachment and an early development of other eye conditions such as glaucoma and cataracts.

Source: https://nei.nih.gov/health/errors/myopia

LASIK Eye Surgery in Kolkata

Looking for places where you can undergo LASIK eye surgery in Kolkata? If yes, then book an appointment with Disha Eye Hospital. They have a team of highly qualified experts and eye surgeons dedicated to resolving any eye problems. If you want to know LASIK eye surgery cost or want to book an appointment at Disha Eye Hospital, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

Frequently asked Questions about Eye Care

cataract surgery in Kolkata

Worried about your eye health? Here you will find all information that you will require for taking care of your eyes. Take a look:

FAQ on Eye care

1. How Often should I need to test my eyes?

As per the American Optometric Association adults who wear glasses or contact lenses and adults who are over 60 years should visit their eye care specialist every year or as suggested by the doctor. If the person doesn’t require any vision correction, then a person between 18 and 60 years should visit the doctor twice a year.

Source: https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/caring-for-your-vision/comprehensive-eye-and-vision-examination/recommended-examination-frequency-for-pediatric-patients-and-adults?sso=y

2. What is Cataract?

The cataract is an eye condition that causes cloudiness of the lenses in your eye. This prevents the light from passing to the retina, causing blurred or poor vision. Like your age, you develop cataract naturally. Sometimes, the cloudiness is very small, and it’s hard to notice. However, in its advanced stage, you may feel like you are like constantly viewing the world through a foggy window.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/cataracts/what-are-cataracts#1

3. What are the symptoms of Cataract?

There are several symptoms of cataract:

  • A vision that is cloudy and foggy
  • Light sensitivity. Glare from sun and lamps may cause serious discomfort
  • Difficulty in driving during the night due to glare from headlights.
  • Frequent changes in your prescription for eyeglass
  • Double vision.
  • Initial improvement in near vision which then gets worse
  • Difficulty in carrying out daily activities due to vision problems

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/cataracts/cataracts-symptoms

You should never ignore symptoms of cataract. Many good hospitals perform cataract surgery in Kolkata. You can check cataract surgery cost in Kolkata before undergoing the treatment. Any delay may result in serious implications.

4. Do I need surgery for Cataract? How would I know that?

Yes, you need to undergo surgery for removing the cataract from your eye. You have to consult an eye doctor first. He or she will conduct various tests, review your complete medical history for determining whether you need a vision correctional surgery or not. After that, he or she will discuss the various options that are available and is best for you.

Source; http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/cataract-surgery.htm

5. What is Myopia or Nearsightedness?

Myopia is a visual error in which the distant objects look blurry as the visual image is focused in front of the retina rather than on retina. This condition normally occurs when the length of the eye is more than the optical length.

6. What is Hyperopia or farsightedness?

This is a condition that results when the visual image is focused behind the retina rather than on the retina. It may be caused due to a small eyeball having a weak focusing power being. This is a condition which is often present from birth. Farsighted people can see distant objects clearly, but the near objects are blurred.

Source: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/19511.htm

7. What is Presbyopia?

The word Presbyopia means “old eye” in Greek. This is a condition when your eyes gradually lose the ability to see nearby things. This is a normal part of ageing. You may start developing presbyopia shortly after crossing the age 40.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-presbyopia

8. What is the difference between Hyperopia and Presbyopia?

The causes and age of developing both the conditions mark the difference between them. Hyperopia is caused when the eye is shorter than normal while Presbyopia is the normal ageing process of the eye. While Hyperopia can happen even in childhood, Presbyopia happens only after the age of 40 years.

9. My eyes are fine, then why do I need to visit the doctor regularly?

This is because through regular and thorough examination the doctor can diagnose silent diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and other eye conditions in its early stage. These conditions do not have any initial symptoms and are impossible to diagnose without thorough check up.

10. What is Macular Degeneration?

This is a condition where the macula of your eyes breaks down causing a sudden or a gradual loss of central vision. Macular degeneration is of two forms: wet and dry. Patients need to undergo a detailed retinal eye examination to determine whether they have macular degeneration or not.

11. Who are at risk of developing Macular Degeneration?

People who are older than 55 years are most likely to suffer from macular degeneration. Apart from that, people with a family history of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are susceptible to developing this condition. Caucasians are most likely to get AMD compared to African-Americans and Hispanics. Smoking too increases the risk of AMD.

Source: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration

12. I have noticed small spots floating in front of my eyes. Is this a cause for concern?

Eye floaters are tiny specks and spots that keep floating in your field of vision. These are annoying at times but usually are harmless. These occur when tiny pieces of the gel-like vitreous of your eyes break loose. However, if you notice flashing spots, then you should immediately consult an eye doctor.

Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/spotsfloats.htm

13. What causes dry eyes?

The tears in your eyes keep them lubricated and moist. That keeps your eyes comfortable. Dry eyes are caused when your eyes are not producing enough tears. You may notice a blurred vision, light sensitivity, redness, and itching in your eyes. Any disbalance in your tear-flow system can cause dry eyes. Other causes include natural ageing process, conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and collagen vascular diseases; less blinking or staring at computer screens or any other object for a long time without blinking.

14. How to treat dry eyes?

The doctor may give you artificial tears and ointments to keep your eyes lubricated. The doctor may even opt for a procedure called temporary punctal occlusion to treat your condition.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/eye-health-dry-eyes#1

Cataract Surgery in Kolkata

Planning to undergo cataract surgery in Kolkata? If yes, then you can book an appointment with the eye surgeons and experts at Disha Eye Hospital. To know more about cataract surgery cost in Kolkata or for booking an appointment, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

FAQs for Diabetic Patients

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Diabetes is a condition where the blood glucose levels are too high. This is mainly because either your body isn’t producing enough insulin or your body cells aren’t responding to the insulin. Diabetes affects multiple organs of your body, including your eyes. A study by the World Health Organisation says that all patients with Type 1 diabetes develop Diabetic Retinopathy; while 77% of people with Type 2 Diabetes who are living with Diabetes for over 20 years develop this eye condition. The report by WHO further mentions that Diabetic Retinopathy is responsible for 4.8% of the total 37 million cases of blindness all over the world.

Source: http://www.who.int/blindness/Prevention%20of%20Blindness%20from%20Diabetes%20Mellitus-with-cover-small.pdf

Apart from Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetes also contributes to the development of a number of eye conditions.

Here are a few Frequently Asked Questions on Diabetes

How Diabetes affect the eyes?

Diabetes causes:

1. Blurry Vision

If you have diabetes, you may often find that your vision has become blurry. This is because the high blood glucose levels make your lens swell, thus affecting your vision. For normalising your vision, you need to get your blood sugar levels down. It might take maximum three long months before your get back your normal vision.

2. Glaucoma

If you have diabetes, then you might get a rare form of glaucoma known as Neovascular Glaucoma. This is a condition where new blood vessels grow in your iris, blocking the flow of fluid and raising your eye pressure. Moreover, people having Type 2 diabetes are most likely to have Open-Angle Glaucoma. Medications help in treating Open-Angle Glaucoma. This helps in reducing the eye pressure and facilitates the drainage of fluid. On the other hand, Neovascular Glaucoma is a bit complicated condition and might require surgery. There are many options for glaucoma treatment in Kolkata. If you have diabetes, then it’s a must to get your eyes checked thoroughly in a good eye hospital in Kolkata. It’s because it’s impossible to diagnose glaucoma without thorough eye check-up.

3. Diabetic Retinopathy

The high blood sugar levels can cause severe damage to the blood vessels in your retina causing Diabetic Retinopathy. Controlling your blood sugar levels, cholesterol, and blood pressure is essential for preventing this condition. You may develop Background Retinopathy (your blood vessels are damaged, but it doesn’t affect your vision); Maculopathy (a damaged macula), and Proliferative Retinopathy, a condition where the cells in the back of your eyes do not get enough oxygen and new blood vessels start growing. These blood vessels often bleed, thus scarring the retina.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/eye-problems#1

What are Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 Diabetes is when the body doesn’t produce insulin because the insulin producing pancreatic cells are damaged by the body’s immune system. Type 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. This is caused when either the pancreas isn’t producing enough insulin or the body couldn’t use the available insulin. This condition is common in people who are obese.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/diabetes-faq#1

What is Prediabetes?

Prediabetes is the condition when the blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but it isn’t high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes. People who have prediabetes are likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases. Early screening is essential for avoiding any further risks.

Source: http://www.diabetes.co.uk/pre-diabetes.html

What is Gestational Diabetes?

This is a type of diabetes that women usually develop during pregnancy. This is a temporary type of diabetes. If you develop this type of diabetes in one pregnancy, you are likely to develop this during your other pregnancies. Gestational diabetes increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in future. So, timely screening is important.

Who can develop Type 2 Diabetes?

These factors can increase your risk of developing this condition:

  • Family history: The family history of type 2 diabetes increases your risk of getting diabetes increases.
  • Age: with age, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases. This may be due to decreased physical activity and loss of muscle mass
  • Obesity: Obesity increases your risk factor for type 2 diabetes. With more fatty tissues, your cells become more resistant to insulin.
  • Inadequate physical activity: if you are less active then you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
  • Unhealthy diet: a diet rich in saturated fats, sugar, and calories increase your body weight thus increasing your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
  • What are the complications caused by Diabetes?
  • High blood glucose levels can damage your kidneys, eyes, nerves, and cause cardiovascular disease. You become susceptible to foot infection (that may lead to gangrene), stroke, heart attack, and sexual dysfunction.

Why it’s important to take special care of the feet?

People with diabetes are prone to foot problems. The blood circulation in your feet becomes poor thus damaging the nerves and reducing sensation. Check for various foot conditions such as cracked skin, swelling, ingrown toenail, blisters, bleeding corns. Proper foot care ensures that no wounds become so severe that the leg needs amputation.

Do Diabetic people need special diet?

Not really. Just ensure that the diet you are following is healthy and contains complex carbohydrates (whole grain cereals), is low in fats, and includes plenty of vegetables. If you plan your diet accordingly, you can still eat all kind of food and stay healthy.

What is Hypoglycaemia?

Hypoglycaemia or low blood sugar level is the most common complication faced by diabetic people. Due to several conditions such as not eating properly or eating too late, doing vigorous physical activity may drop your blood sugar levels below normal range. Patients usually feel weakness, sweating, and giddiness. At that time, the patient must be given fruit juice or some sugary drink. In case the patient is unconscious, he or she must be given intravenous glucose. Adjusting the dosage of antidiabetic medicine can help avoid this condition.

Source: http://www.searo.who.int/entity/world_health_day/2016/faqs-diabetes.pdf?ua=1

Glaucoma Treatment in Kolkata

Looking for the best eye hospital in Kolkata? Why not get your eyes tested by the experts at Disha Eye Hospital? We provide comprehensive glaucoma treatment in Kolkata. Book an appointment with us today at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

26 Ways to Care for your Contact Lenses and Eyes

Disha Eye Hospital

Eyes are vulnerable to infections; especially when you wear contact lenses. If you do not use contact lenses as directed or do not take proper care of it, you could be damaging your eyes. The most important thing that you can do is to keep your lenses clean. Other than that, there are a number of things that you can do to take proper care of your eyes and contact lenses. Take a look:

Take Care of your Contact Lenses

Here is how you can take care of your contact lenses

1. Wash your hands with soap before. Pat them dry using a lint-free towel before you handle your contact lenses.

2. Keep the contact lenses away from water. Remove lenses before going to swimming or while bathing.

3. Avoid using saline solution and rewetting drops for disinfecting your lenses.

4. Wear lenses as per guideline. Replace them according to the schedule as prescribed by the eye specialist.

5. NEVER put your contact lenses in your mouth to get them wet.

6. When cleaning, rub the contact lenses using fingers first. After that, rinse the lenses with a solution and then soak them. As per the eye experts, this “rub and rinse” method is the best way of cleaning the contact lens. Even if the solution is a “no-rub” variety then also you can use it to rub the lenses.

7. Follow proper guideline for cleaning and storing the lenses. Ask the eye specialist for the guidelines.

8. NEVER rinse or wash your contact lenses with water. Do not even think of keeping them in water instead of the solution.

9. If you are storing the lenses in the case for a longer period, follow the instructions to determine if you need to re-disinfect the lenses before wearing them again. In any case, avoid wearing a contact lens after storing it for at least 30 days without re-disinfecting the lenses.

10. ALWAYS rinse the contact lens case using fresh solution. NEVER use water. Leave the empty case open and air-dry it.

11. Never let the tip of the solution bottle to come in contact with any other surface. Tightly close the bottle after use or when not in use.

12. Replace the contact lens case at least every three months. These can be a source of infection. NEVER use damaged lens cases.

13. NEVER re-use old contact lens solution.

14. Avoid transferring the contact lens solution into any other container. This affects the sterility of the solution, and this might cause an eye infection.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/glasses-contacts/contact-lens-care

Take Care of Your Eyes

If you wear lenses, then take proper care of your eyes to avoid any kind of infection. Here is how you can keep your eyes safe:

15. Wear your contacts as per your doctor recommends. Wear them as long as the doctor thinks it’s necessary.

16. In case you cannot keep track of the time when to change your lenses, ask your eye doctor to give you a chart for tracking your schedule. Or else, make a chart for yourself.

17. NEVER EVER wear someone else’s contact lenses, especially if its wearer already uses those lenses. Using other’s contact lenses can get you eye infections or other foreign bodies from their eyes to yours.

18. NEVER sleep with your contact lenses in. Avoid doing it unless you have an extended-wear lens. When you close your eyelids, your tears don’t get much oxygen to your eyes compared to when it’s open. So, take the lenses off before going to sleep.

19. When going out, wear sunglasses with complete UV protection. You can even wear a hat. Contact lenses make your eyes light-sensitive.

20. Keep your eyes moist and use a rewetting solution (if only recommended by your doctor).

21. Often people accidentally wear contact lenses inside out. Although this doesn’t hurt it doesn’t feel good even. In order to avoid this keep the lens on the tip of your finger so that it forms a cup. Now, look at the contact from the side. If the cup of the lens appears like it flares out at the top and has a lip that means the lens is inside out. And if it appears like the letter “U,” then it is the right side out.

If wearing contact lenses gets your eye irritated, take out the lenses. Talk to your doctor and do not wear them until as suggested by the doctor. If you continue wearing them, your eye will get infected.

23. In case you have sudden vision loss or have a blurred vision that won’t get better; if you experience light flashes, swelling and unusual redness in your eye, go to your eye doctor right away.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/caring-contact-lens

24. If you smoke, then quit smoking. Coontact lens wearers who smoke are more likely to get eye problems than non-smokers.

25. Do not use any decorative lenses. Avoid buying lenses that are sold at the at costume shops. These lenses can damage your eyes permanently.

26. Get your eyes regularly checked. If you wear contact lenses, you should visit an eye care specialist quarterly or annually as per your need and as suggested by the doctor.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/glasses-contacts/contact-lens-care

You are suffering from a contact-lens related infection if you experience these following symptoms:

  • blurry vision
  • unusual redness of the eye
  • feeling like there is something in your eye
  • pain in the eye
  • light sensitivity
  • tearing or heavy discharge from the eye

Do not avoid these symptoms as contact lens-related eye infections can cause severe complications and even cause vision loss. Rush to an eye specialist if you wear a contact lens and experience all these symptoms.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/contact-lens-infection-symptoms

Let Disha Eye Hospital Take Care of Your Eyes

We have dedicated eye specialist to take care of each need of your eyes. Our specialists are committed to their promise to keep your eyes safe and help you see well. Book an appointment today at 03366360000. For booking, you can also visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

10 Facts on Eye Injuries

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Eye injuries can happen anytime, anywhere. You might get an eye injury while playing a sport or you might accidentally bump your eye. Even dust particles blown into your eyes can injure your eyes. While many small injuries and surface scratches can be treated at home easily, many serious eye injuries might cost you your vision. Here’re a few facts about eye injuries and ways to treat them:

1. Cut on your Eyelid or Eyelid Laceration
Disha Eye Hospital
Sports and recreational activities often expose you to the risk of eyelid laceration. A direct blow to your eyes might cut and injure the eyelid and also result in bruising around your eyes. If you have cut your eyelid, use a sterile bandage to cover that area. Avoid cotton as it might get stuck in the wound. Apply ice packs and keep your head elevated to reduce swelling. You can take painkillers such as ibuprofen and aspirin (do not take aspirin if you are younger than 20 years). If the symptoms do not go away by 24 hours, visit an eye specialist immediately.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tc/eye-injuries-home-treatment#1

2. Corneal Abrasion
Disha Eye Hospital
Common causes of corneal abrasion include rubbing the eye hard when a foreign particle is present in the eye or if you get poked in your eye. This condition is very uncomfortable and makes your eyes red and cause swelling. If you get a scratched on your eye, avoid rubbing and patching it. This exposes it to bacterial infection. Keep your eyes closed or loosely tape it. Apply an ice pack. Visit your doctor immediately to avoid any further complication.

Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/eye-injuries.htm

3. Chemical Burn

There might be situations chemicals might get sprayed into your eyes. It could be during cleaning your home or during any other activity. While some chemicals are relatively harmless causing just a stinging and burning sensation for a while but there are some that might result in serious eye damage. Acids can be easily washed out from your eyes while Alkali substances may cause serious injuries. If you accidentally get chemicals in your eye, then do not rub it. Instead, put your head into a stream of water and let the water run through your eyes and down your face for at least 15 minutes. Put a cool and moist compress on your eyes. Your eye is at greater risk if it continues to be red and your vision is blurred. Immediately consult an eye specialist if the condition persists.

Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/eye-injuries.htm

4. Traumatic Iritis
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It is an injury to the coloured part of your eye that’s surrounding the pupil. A blow to your eyes with a blunt object such as a ball or fist cause traumatic iritis. To treat this condition, you need to visit the doctor. Ensure that you take the medication on time. Sometimes, light or glare can cause discomfort in your eyes. To avoid that, wear dark glasses.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/iritis#2-7

5. Black eye

When you are struck in your eyes, you might get a Black eye. The signs of a black eye are swelling in the eyelid and the soft tissue around the eye that has been struck. Sometimes this is accompanied by broken blood vessels along the white part of your eye. This is also known as a subconjunctival haemorrhage. Initially, the colour might appear deep purple or blue and then turn to green before disappearing. It takes about a week to vanish completely. Apply cold compress on that areas. This helps in easing swelling and narrowing your blood vessels. That helps in stopping bleeding below your skin. Give 10 minutes intervals in between each application. Otherwise, he ice can damage your skin. Visit the doctor if you have blurred or double vision.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/understanding-black-eye-symptoms

6. Subconjunctival Haemorrhage
Disha Eye Hospital
Broken blood vessels in the eye are pretty common and are caused by a blow or trauma to the eyes. This may result from even a minor injury to the eye. This is a painless condition and doesn’t cause vision loss. In such cases, avoid rubbing your eyes as this might aggravate the condition. A subconjunctival haemorrhage usually heals on its own and doesn’t need any treatment. Depending on how big the spot is, the injury might take a few days or a few weeks to heal. You might apply artificial tears to sooth the irritation; however, this doesn’t heal the injury. If you get this injury often, talk to your eye specialist.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/subconjunctival-hemorrhage-treatment

7. Hyphaema

This condition occurs when any injury to the eye tears its iris or pupil. People tend to mistake this condition with subconjunctival haemorrhage which is a painless and harmless condition. Hyphaema causes pain in your eyes and even cause blurred vision. Your eyes will appear as if it is filled with blood. This is a condition that calls for immediate medical attention. Go straight to an eye specialist for further treatment. If neglected, it might affect your quality of vision.

Source: http://www.webmd.boots.com/eye-health/guide/hyphaema-eye-internal-bleeding

What to Do in Case of Eye Injury?

8. In the case of any eye injury, keep in mind the following things:

  • NEVER touch, rub the eyes
  • NEVER try to remove the object that’s stuck in your eyes
  • NEVER apply any ointment to the eye

9. If the eyes have been cut then:

  • NEVER rinse eye with water
  • NEVER apply pressure to the eye or rub it

10. If any foreign particle gets in your eyes then:

  • NEVER rub the eye
  • Blink rapidly to get the tears to flush out the foreign body
  • If it doesn’t go, keep the eye closed and visit a doctor
  • Seek medical attention right away in case of any injury.

Disha Eye Hospital Can help you with your Eye Problems

Be it a minor injury or a serious issue, problems in the eyes shouldn’t be ignored. If you have any kind of eye issues, you can refer to our specialists. Our eye specialists are working relentlessly to keep your vision safe. Call us today at 03366360000 or visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment to book an appointment.

Interesting Retina Facts you Didn’t Know

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Retina is a tissue present inside your eyeballs that lines the backside of the eyeballs. It converts the incoming light into nerve signals, and that is how you can see objects clearly under different conditions such as under the sunlight or starlight. It helps in differentiating between the light wavelengths so that you can see colours. Not only that, Retina also gives you the precision to see and detect minute objects including a strand of human hair or speck of dust a few metres away.

Retina is a part of the brain; to be precise, it is a part of the Central Nervous System (CNS). During the embryonic developmental stage in vertebrates, the Retina and the Optic Nerve develop as an outgrowth of the developing brain.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/retina.htm

Here, we have explored interesting facts about the design, working and all related facts about the Retina:

The Retina

  • Similar to the other structures in the Central Nervous System, the shape of the retina is like a plate. It is about a quarter millimetres in thickness. Similar to the layers of cake, the Retina also consists of three layers of nerve-cell bodies. These bodies are separated by two layers that contain the synapses made by the axons and the dendrites of these cells.

Source: http://hubel.med.harvard.edu/book/b8.htm

  • Retina consists of sensory neurones and the intricate neural circuits. The sensory neurones respond to light while the intricate neural circuits perform the primary stages of image processing. Finally, an electrical message travels through the optic nerve to your brain and further processes your visual perception.
  • The photoreceptors or the sensory cells lie at the back of the retina. The light rays need to pass through the entire retina before it reaches the pigment molecules and excites them. This is so because the membranes of the photoreceptors containing the pigments must be in touch with the Epithelial Layer of the Eye. This layer provides a steady stream of Retinal or Vitamin A, one of the vital molecules.
  • After these Retinal molecules are exposed to light, they undergo a conformational change and are recycled back into the pigment epithelium. This tissue is located behind the retina. It is very dark as its cells contain melanin granules. These granules absorb stray photons thus preventing them from creating a reflection on the photoreceptors, which might make the images appear blurred. These melanin granules also safeguard the cells from overexposure to light radiation.

Source: http://webvision.med.utah.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2003-01Kolb.pdf

The Design of Retina

  • The Retina of all vertebrate contains two types of photoreceptors. These are the rods and the cones. Rods are used for low-light vision and Cones for daylight and any bright-coloured vision. The Retinas of frogs, fishes, turtle and bird contain at least 3-5 different types of cones. And that is why they have a very good colour vision. On the other hand, the Retinas of most of the mammals predominantly consist of rods.
  • The Retinas of most of the mammals contain two types of cones: the green-sensitive ones and the others are blue-sensitive cones. However, primates have one extra type of cones in their eyes. These cones are red-sensitive cones. With the cone vision of your eye, you can see images starting from the grey shades of dawn to the eye-dazzling brightness of noon when the sun is the brightest.
  • The cone photoreceptors can adapt to the surrounding brightness, and the circuitry in the retina further regulates the eye’s response to the brightness. Similar to the cone photoreceptors, the rod photoreceptors and the neural circuitry (to which they are connected) can adapt to the low intensity of light.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Retina

  • The brightest and the most brilliant colour vision are experienced by the eye when the light directly falls on the small dimple on the Retina, also known as the Macula or the Fovea Centralis. This region has a high presence of cones which are smaller and tightly packed compared to any other region on the Retina.
  • Your eyes receive data from a field that ranges up to 200 degrees. The visual acuity over most of that range is very poor.  In order to form high-resolution images, the light needs to fall on the Fovea. This limits your acute vision angle to about 15 degrees. In low light, the Fovea constitutes a second blind spot as because it is only the cones that have low light sensitivity. So, during night. If you want to get the maximum visual acuity, shift the vision slightly to one side by at least 4 to 12 degrees. In this way, the light will fall on some rods.

Source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/retina.html

  • The diameter of the Anatomic Macula or Area Centralis is about 4.5–6 mm. These are centred on the fovea and are located between the superior and inferior temporal arcades. The macula or the fovea centralis is located about 3 mm temporal to the optic disc. It has a diameter of about 1.5 mm.

Source: https://www.libreriauniverso.it/pdf/9783642120404.pdf

  • The Fovea is the central part of the macula. It is formed by a central depression of about 0.35 mm wide. Clinically, one can recognise the area by the foveal reflex. If it is lost, then it indicates an early macular disease.
  • The peripheral retina constitutes the rest of the retina which is outside the temporal retinal arteries. If considered anatomically, the peripheral retina contains only a layer of ganglion cells.
  • Each adult human retina consists of 3.5 million Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells.
  • The human retina constitutes about 4 to 5 million cones and about 77 to 107 million rods.
  • Each photoreceptor cell in your eye contains an outer segment (photopigment), the inner segment (mitochondria, endoplasmatic reticulum), a nucleus, an inner fibre, and the synaptic terminal.
  • The ganglion cell layer and the photoreceptor layer are connected by the Interneurons in the inner nuclear retinal layer. These interneurons contain the bipolar, horizontal, amacrine, and the inner plexiform cells. These cells constitute the complex neuroretinal circuits that help in processing the photoreceptor signal and then transmit that information to the ganglion cells. In other words, the photoreceptor cell is directly connected to the ganglion cell through bipolar cells. The rods and cones provide input to these bipolar cells.
  • The visual information is transmitted by the ganglion cells from the retina to your brain. The ganglion perikarya are the largest retinal neurones. These are located in the ganglion cell layer. Their axons run in on the inner surface of the retina in a separate layer and are collected at the optic disk. From there, they exit the eye as the optic nerve.

Source: https://www.libreriauniverso.it/pdf/9783642120404.pdf

Retinal Diseases

A healthy Retina is essential for good vision. Retinal disorders affect the vital tissues of the eye, thus affecting your vision. It can even cause blindness. Common Retinal disorders include:

  • Macular Degeneration: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is cased when the Macula of your Retina is damaged. People suffering from AMD lose their central vision. You won’t be able to see fine details. Your peripheral or side vision remains normal. AMD is of two types:


This type of AMD is very common. About 80% of the people who suffer from AMD suffer from the dry form. When parts of your macula get thinner with age, tiny clumps of protein called drusen grow on them. With this, you slowly lose your central vision. There is no way to treat dry AMD.


This is less common; however is a serious one. When there is an abnormal growth of blood vessels under the retina, the condition is called Wet AMD. Blood or other fluid often leaks from these vessels that cause scarring of the macula. Compared to dry AMD, you tend to lose vision faster with wet AMD.

People often do not realise they are suffering from AMD until their vision gets extremely blurred.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/amd-macular-degeneration

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
    People with diabetes suffer from this eye disease.  High blood sugar levels often damage the blood vessels in the retina. This causes the blood vessels to swell and leak. They even close, thereby completely stopping blood flow. Many times, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the retina.  These changes too can cause vision loss.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-diabetic-retinopathy

  • Retinal Vein Occlusion
    The veins that carry blood away from the retina get blocked causing Retinal Vein Occlusion. Retinal vein occlusion is often caused when the arteries harden, thus, causing blood clots.

Blockage of smaller veins in the retina often occurs in places where the retinal arteries have thickened. This puts excess pressure on the retinal vein. Several factors can cause Retinal Vein Occlusion. This includes:

  • Atherosclerosis
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Diabetes
  • Other eye conditions, such as macular edema, glaucoma, and vitreous haemorrhage

The risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion increases with age, and thus, older adults are vulnerable to retinal vein occlusion.

Source: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007330.htm

  • Retinal Tear or Detachment
    Often it happens that the vitreous moves away from the retina without causing any serious problem.  However, sometimes it pulls so hard that it tears the retina. Fluid tends to pass through this retinal tear, thus lifting it off the back of the eye similar to the way you peel wallpaper off the wall. This is known as retinal detachment. As the retina gets detached from the eye, your vision becomes blurry. This is a very serious problem that results in blindness unless you undergo a detached retina surgery.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/detached-torn-retina

  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
    This is a group of eye problems that affect your retina. Retinitis Pigmentosa affects the way your retina responds to light, thus making it difficult for you to see clearly. People suffering from Retinitis Pigmentosa may slowly lose their vision over time. However, people do not become completely blind.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-retinitis-pigmentosa

  • Macular Hole
    People suffering from this condition often notice a sudden decrease in vision in one eye. Macular hole often occurs due to Vitreous shrinkage and/or separation. This condition is caused by a number of other conditions such as:
  • Diabetic eye disease
  • Macular pucker
  • High amounts of nearsightedness
  • A detached retina
  • Best’s disease (this is an inherited condition that causes macular damage)
  • Eye injury
  • Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/macular-holes.htm

  • Epiretinal Membrane (ERM)

This condition is commonly known as cellophane maculopathy or macular puckers. In this condition semitranslucent, avascular (having few or no blood vessels), fibrocellular membranes develop on the inner surface of the retina. They cause minimal symptoms and can be diagnosed only after close observation. However, in a number of other cases, they also cause painless loss of vision and metamorphopsia or distortion of vision. Generally, ERMs give symptoms when it affects the macula or the central portion of the retina. The macula is the part that helps us to identify fine detail, helps in reading and recognising faces. So, distortion of vision is more evident when ERM affect eyes.

Most of the patients suffering from ERMs do not experience any symptoms. After close examination of the retina or during a dilated retinal exam the eye specialist detects the condition. Retinal imaging such as with ocular coherence tomography (OCT) is also used for identifying ERM.  In these cases, patients usually have a normal or a near-normal vision. However, this condition can get worse with time causing great visual distortion. Defect on the surface layer of the retina causing the glial cells to migrate there and start growing on the retinal surface can give rise to this condition. This extra growth appears like cellophane and may contract with time, thus causing traction and macular puckers and poor vision quality.

Source: https://www.asrs.org/patients/retinal-diseases/19/epiretinal-membranes

This is why it is crucial visits ophthalmologists or retina specialists regularly. They can examine your eyes closely and determine the early symptoms of any retinal problem.

Wondering where to get the best retina specialist in Kolkata? We are here to help you. Book an appointment with us today at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

How Stress Affects Your Eyes?

How Stress Affects Your Eyes

Stress negatively impacts your overall wellbeing. Too much stress can cause problems such as depression, heart ailments, high blood pressure, resulting in other serious conditions. But do you know that too much stress can also impact your vision? Yes, stress can affect your vision in many ways. Let’s take a look:

1. Central Serous Retinopathy

Central serous retinopathy (CSR) affects the Macula which is the central area of Retina. In this condition, excessive fluid gets accumulated underneath your Macula, thus causing distorted and blurred vision. Whenever you look at any object, it will appear smaller or distorted. In most of the cases, Central Serous Retinopathy gets better with time and without any treatment and it doesn’t cause any long-term changes in your vision. However, in many people, the condition might recur. If it is a recurring problem, in that case, chances are high that your vision might get permanently affected. This condition is also known as Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. If you are under high stress, your body releases stress hormone into your blood called Cortisol. This helps your body to cope with stress. Although Cortisol is essential for your body but a high level of Cortisol in your bloodstream causes problems. This includes vision related problems (CSR), immune suppression (reduce your body’s ability to fight diseases and infection) and increases the fragility of your blood vessels.

2. Blepharospasm

This condition is also known as eyelid twitching. Usually, Blepharospasm is caused by high level of stress. In this condition, the constant spasms make your eyelid twitch uncontrollably. This might irritate or frustrate you. In most of the cases, other observers won’t be able to see the twitching movement in your eyelids. With time, the twitching gradually lessens and usually doesn’t need any treatment. However, if this continues for longer time period, then the doctor might recommend injecting Botox near your eyelids. This helps in preventing muscle twitching. High stress, lack of sleep along with caffeine consumption may trigger this condition.

3. Nystagmus

This is a vision condition where your eye makes an uncontrolled movement. These movements are repetitive. Such frequent movements often cause reduced vision and a reduced depth perception. Such issues can affect your balance and coordination. In this eye condition, your eye moves either up or down, side to side, or in a circular way. And as a result, your eyes cannot see objects steadily. People suffering from Nystagmus often nod or hold their heads in unusual positions to see clearly.
Fatigue and stress is one of the triggers of nystagmus and often make the condition worse. It is not possible to cure this condition with any treatment but using eyeglasses can improve your vision to some extent. In extreme cases, the eye surgeon may manipulate the muscles that are controlling your eye movement for reducing the symptoms.

Source: https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/nystagmus?sso=y

4. Dry Eyes

When you are stressed, your body increases and thickens the blood flow in your stream in order to protect you from the negative effects of stress. When the blood flow increases, your heart too works harder than usual for circulating the blood. In such case, blood circulation to the extremities in your body, such as your brain, skin and eyes is decreased. As a result, your eyes become dry and irritated. In a study published in Pakistan Journal Of Medical Science in 2015, the researchers studied the relation between psychosomatic conditions such as stress, anxiety, and depression and Dry Eye Disease (DED). The study involving 121 people concluded that people with stress, anxiety, and depression are prone to Dry Eye Disease compared to those who do not suffer from those psychosomatic conditions.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485284/

5. Blurred vision

Blurred vision

Stress affects your body and manifests itself in a number of ways. Blurred vision is a secondary symptom of stress and when you experience vision problem, it creates more stress, thus aggravating the situation. When you experience stress, your body reacts to it as if it is facing something dangerous, causing your pupils to dilate. As a result, more light enters the eye so that you can assess the situation in a better way. However, too much light results in poor vision and blurriness. A study published in the journal called Optometry in 2010 found that patients suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) often suffer from blurred vision. PTSD is a condition linked to an unpleasant memory that causes a severe emotional response in you causing stress and other psychological and physical symptoms. For more information, visit http://www.papsociety.org/xanax-alprazolam-1-mg/.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20435270

6. Functional/Hysterical Vision Loss

Hysterical vision loss is different from malingering. It affects you outside your conscious awareness. Based on the Freudian concept, Hysteria can be defined as a conversion disorder which is caused by an extreme psychological conflict. Such conflicts often manifest itself in form of physical symptoms. Stress is one of the leading causes of such conversion reaction causing trauma and fear. This problem is characterised by poor visual acuity, reduced hyperopic refractive status, stereopsis, and emmetropia. Even using corrective lenses often doesn’t help in improving your distance visual acuity.

Source: https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/when-stress-strains-vision

7. Photophobia

This condition is also known as light sensitivity. Under this, you will experience intolerance of light. From an incandescent light to the normal sunlight, any and all light sources can cause discomfort so that you will feel like squinting or closing your eyes. This condition is accompanied by headaches. People suffering from light sensitivity are bothered by bright light. However, in extreme cases, any source of light will cause irritation in your eyes. This is not a disease but actually a symptom of other conditions such as Corneal Abrasion, any infection or inflammation of eyes, Uveitis, and other Central Nervous System disorders (such as meningitis). This condition can also be caused by detached retina and irritation caused by contact lenses. Stress can further aggravate this condition, making it worse.



Most of the eye conditions caused by stress are temporary. However, if such symptoms are persistent, then get in touch with an eye specialist immediately.

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At Disha, you can get in touch with our expert eye specialists who can help in treating your eye problems and enjoy a better vision. Get in touch with our experts today. Book an appointment with us at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.