What are the Differences Between eye Screening and a Comprehensive Eye Examination?

It goes without saying that the eyes are a complex organ, and so are the complications associated with them.  Therefore, confirming the presence of different eye complications requires different types of diagnostic procedures.

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Get you eyes checked at Disha Eye Hospitals. We have some of the best eye specialists in Kolkata . They can detect the presence of problems in your eyes with the advanced technology-led diagnostic procedures. They specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of various eye diseases. An early diagnosis can reduce the risk of worsening of your eye complication. Book your appointment with one of our eye specialists online at http://www.dishaeye.org/organic/.

When visiting an eye doctor, many are confused between eye screening and comprehensive eye examination. If you too are confused, these key differences between the two should give you a clear picture:

1) Eye screening:

Eye screening (also known as eye test) is a basic, brief eye examination. Eye screening is primarily done in order to look for a particular eye problem. Eye doctors perform eye screening to detect the presence of common vision problems (refractive errors), including Hyperopia (farsightedness), Myopia (nearsightedness), and Astigmatism.

After detecting the presence of a particular vision problem, eye doctors refer patients to eye care specialists (ophthalmologists) for in-depth diagnosis and treatment. In children, eye screening is done to look for two common childhood eye conditions, Strabismus and Amblyopia (aka Lazy Eye). It’s a must to take children for eye screening every year.

2) Comprehensive eye examination:-

A comprehensive eye examination can be classified as a detailed eye exam. It is done to get a full evaluation of your vision and overall eye health.  A comprehensive eye examination can last up to an hour or more as there are a number of eye tests that are performed. These include:

What are the differences Between eye screening and a Comprehensive Eye Examination

  • Visual acuity test

Ophthalmologists usually perform a visual acuity test as the first test during a comprehensive eye examination. Visual acuity test involves measuring the sharpness of the vision through an eye chart. Ophthalmologists measure distant and near vision by changing the distance of the eye chart.

  • Refraction test:-

After detecting the refraction error (if there’s any), the ophthalmologist will perform a refraction test in order to accurately determine the eyeglass prescription. Ophthalmologists use an instrument called a phoropter to determine the exact lens power as per the level of refraction error. The ophthalmologist depends upon the feedback of the patient in order to fine-tune the lens power.

  • Slit lamp exam:-

Slit lamp exam is one of the important eye tests performed during a comprehensive eye exam. It is done to detect the presence of complex and serious eye complications such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Corneal Ulcers, Cataracts, Glaucoma, and Macular Degeneration. The eye test involves examining different parts of the eyes under high magnification using an upright microscope. An ophthalmologist checks the lens, conjunctiva, cornea, and iris.

  • Eye movement test:-

Eye movement test, as the name suggests, is done to determine the coordination of both eyes. An ophthalmologist instructs patients to follow a particular object, like a light source, to determine how well can both eyes follow. Improper eye movement can indicate the presence of strabismus; improper eye movement also increases the risk of developing double vision.

  • Pupil dilation test:-

In order to get a better diagnosis of some eye complications like Diabetic Retinopathy, ophthalmologists dilate the pupils in order to get a better view of the affected eye’s internal structures. Ophthalmologists commonly use a dilating eye drop. The eye doctor will shine a bright light into the dilated pupil to see the eyes’ internal structures more clearly.

We, at Disha Eye Hospitals, are committed to preserving your eyesight. From diagnosis to treatment, our best retina specialists in Kolkata look forward to serving your retinal health care needs.

Difference Between Cataracts and Glaucoma

Difference between cataracts and glaucoma

Cataracts and Glaucoma are two of the most serious eye complications. Both the degenerative eye diseases occur as the natural part of the aging process and cause vision impairment. However, the eye diseases have stark differences in between them.

Let’s uncover the key differences between these two serious eye complications to get a clear picture: 

1) Symptoms: While symptoms including eye pain and vision blurriness are common in both eye complications, the other symptoms that are different:

Cataracts:

  • Double vision in the single eye
  • Yellowing of colours
  • Clouded vision
  • Appearance of cloudy formation on eyes’ lens area
  • Lowered vision in dimly lit areas

Glaucoma:

  • Seeing coloured rings around lights
  • Sudden disturbances in vision
  • Eye redness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Book an eye test online:

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, make sure to seek medical advice. We, at Disha Eye Hospital, have a team of some of the best eye specialists in Kolkata. Book an appointment online at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment and get a proper diagnosis of your eye health.

2) Causes:- 

The way Cataracts and Glaucoma cause vision loss are completely different from each other, and so are the factors that cause them.

Cataracts: The eye complication occurs when the eye lenses become stiffer, start breaking down, and form clumps as you age. As the eye disease progresses, the clumps become denser and start clouding the lens. This, in turn, obstructs light to completely pass through and reach the retina which results in blurred vision. Cataracts can either develop in one eye or both eyes. In cases where cataracts form in both eyes, the clouding of the lens is not even.

Glaucoma: Glaucoma occurs when the intraocular pressure (IOP) increases above normal levels and damages the optic nerve. The IOP increases when the fluid (aqueous humour) in the front of the eye builds up when it is not drained as properly as it should.

As the IOP increases with time, more damage is done to the optic nerve, which, in turn, leads to gradual vision impairment.

3) Vision loss restoration:-
As discussed above, both the eye diseases cause vision loss. However, vision loss can be restored and reversed only in Cataracts and not in Glaucoma.

Cataract: Cataract surgery, the go-to treatment option for cataracts, involves replacing the clouded lens with an artificial lens. Before the surgery, the doctor takes into account the refractive error of the patient to choose an artificial lens accordingly to correct the vision.

Glaucoma: The goal of treatment options for Glaucoma, including eye drops and surgery, is to reduce and stop vision loss from worsening by lowering IOP. Depending on the severity of your Glaucoma, the eye doctor may start treatment by prescribing eye drops or schedule a surgery.

4) Prevention

Both Cataracts and Glaucoma cannot be entirely prevented. However, you can take certain steps to lower the risks. Some of these include:

  • A healthy and balanced diet:

    Eating healthily is key to maintaining good eye health and lowering the risk of complications. Add green vegetables, colourful fruits, fresh eggs, and lean fish and meat to your diet to make sure you get proper nutrition intake.

  • Regular exercise: 

Exercising regularly helps improve blood circulation in the eyes. Another key benefit of regular exercise is it helps you maintain healthy body weight. Being overweight and obese increases the risk of diabetes which, in turn, can cause a vision-threatening eye disease known as Diabetic Retinopathy.

Consult best retina specialists in Kolkata

If you are suffering from diabetes, you are at an increased risk of Diabetic Retinopathy. Our team of some of the best retina specialists in Kolkata can guide you on taking important steps to lower the risk.

Why You Should Go for Routine Eye Check Ups?

 

Why you should go for routine eye check ups?
Getting an annual eye exam is a crucial part of ensuring good eye health for yourself and your loved ones. The benefits of regular eye checkups go beyond preventing eye-related complication as it also helps in diagnosis underlying health conditions at early stages. This way, you can start early treatments and lower the risks of complications.

Consult best eye specialists in Kolkata

Book an appointment at Disha Eye Hospital to get a comprehensive eye exam from one of the best eye specialists in Kolkata. Visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment to book your appointment online.

Here are some of the important reasons for getting regular eye checkups:

1) Diagnosis of diabetes:

Blurry vision is usually one of the first warning signs of high blood sugar levels. When your body doesn’t produce enough insulin that helps break down sugar in the body, the blood vessels swell up. This swelling can cause the fluid to leak into the lens of your eye, making it difficult for eyes to focus. An early comprehensive eye exam conducted can not only lead to early detection of diabetes, but the eye doctor diabetes specialist can help you manage diabetes better.

2) Diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy:-

Diabetic retinopathy, as its name implies, is one of the complications of diabetes. As discussed above, diabetes causes damage to the blood vessels in the eyes, causing them to leak and swell. This can also cause the eyes to grow new, weak blood vessels which leak blood in the vitreous gel of the eye and lead to vision blurriness. The bleeding can form scars over time and detach the retina from the eye.

The only way to detect the presence of diabetic retinopathy during early stages is through a comprehensive eye exam. This is because the eye disease does not cause any symptom during the initial stages. The eye doctor may conduct various eye tests, including a dilated eye exam (for a detailed examination of the eyes), and optical coherence tomography (to examine retina) to confirm the presence of the eye complication.

3) Keep your children’s eyes healthy:-

There’s no doubt that good vision helps your children learn better at school. However, children these days spend longer time using phones, tablets, and laptops which can take a toll on their vision.

The best way to ensure your children have a good vision is by taking them to annual eye checkups. The eye doctor can diagnose if your children have a refractive error and can suggest treatments and visual aids such as eyeglasses and contact lens accordingly.

4) Diagnosis of glaucoma:-

Glaucoma, apart from being one of the leading causes of vision loss, is also one of the most common eye complications. Glaucoma occurs when the passages in the eyes clog and prevent eye fluids from draining. As a result, the eye fluids accumulate and increase intraocular pressure in the eyes. This. in turn, causes damage to the retina and optic nerve, and leads to vision impairment.

By visiting an eye doctor every year, you can get the eye complication detected at early stages. As such, you can start early treatment to lower the risks of complications. To detect the presence of glaucoma, an eye doctor may perform several eye tests, including tonometry (for measuring pressure in the eyes), ophthalmoscopy (to examine the topic nerve), and perimetry (to examine the field of vision).

5) Diagnosis of cataracts:-

Common in older adults, cataracts is one of the most serious eye complications and leads to permanent vision loss. The eye complication occurs when protein builds up in the lens of the eyes and start forming clumps. As such, the protein build-up clouds the lens and obstruct light from fully entering into the retina.

Apart from older age, diabetes, family history of the eye disease, and physical injury to the eyes can also increase the risk of cataracts. During your annual eye exam, your eye doctor can detect early cataract symptoms such as abnormal changes in the lens area, nearsightedness, double vision, and sensitivity to glare. To confirm the presence of the eye disease, your eye doctor may conduct the three important tests, including visual acuity test, retinal exam, and slit-lamp exam.

Consult best retina specialists in Kolkata

If you are having blurry vision or you are diabetic, consult best retina specialists in Kolkata at Disha Eye Hospital. Our retina specialists can help diagnose problems like diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma etc. At Disha Eye Hospital, we use industry-leading medical technologies and equipment to provide high-quality eye care. To learn more about our eye care services, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/.

Common Kid’s Eye Disorders

Common Kid's Eye Disorders

It is important to take your children for annual eye check-up to start early treatment of eye problems (if diagnosed any) and avoid further complications.

Over here we have discussed a list of common eye disorders in children. If your kid shows any of the symptoms mentioned below, consult our eye specialists.

1) Excessive tears (Epiphora):-

Watery eyes are common in babies. However, it if doesn’t pass by itself, the condition can mean serious eye complications. There are several causes of excessive tearing in babies.

The most common cause is overproduction of tears mainly due to irritation of the eyes by irritants such as dirt, pollen, and dust. Make sure that your baby doesn’t rub his/her eyes to avoid worsening of the irritation. Other causes include problems with tear ducts and eye infections such as pink eye.

One of the basic home remedies is to clean your baby’s eyelids to prevent accumulation of infection-causing discharges with filtered water and cotton.

If you stay in Kolkata, and your kid suffers from persistent watery eyes, then visit the best eye specialist in Kolkata at Disha Hospitals. At Disha Eye Hospital, our team comprises of some of the best eye specialists in Kolkata. Visit our eye hospital for a proper eye diagnosis for your kid. Learn more about us at http://www.dishaeye.org/history.

2) Dry eyes:-

Dry eye occurs when there’s insufficient lubrication in the surface of the eyes. As a result, the condition can cause irritation, burning sensation, and itchiness. Dry eyes is becoming increasingly common in kids as they spend too much time on smartphones or playing video games.

The eye condition can make it challenging for your child to play sports, read books, use a computer, and even perform well at school. If you notice symptoms such as frequent eye rubbing, and soreness and redness in the eyes, make sure to consult an eye doctor.

3) Strabismus:-

Strabismus is when the eyes are misaligned. In other words, both eyes are unable to aim at the same subject. In strabismus, one or both the eyes may turn inward, outward, up, or down. Kids can either develop the condition in childhood or be born with it.

Strabismus is linked to problems with the eye muscles. In other cases, the condition can also be caused by the brain’s control centre that directs eye movements, or the nerves that transmit information to the muscles.

Like most children, your kid may not notice changes in their vision or complain about the problem. If you notice your kid’s eyes don’t consistently look in the same direction, make sure to take medical help. Treatment options for the condition include eye patching, eye drops, eyeglasses, and eye muscle surgery.

4) Lazy Eye:-

Lazy eye, also called Amblyopia, is a condition in which one of the eyes doesn’t fully develop, causing vision impairment. As the condition affects one of the eyes, your kid may not notice changes in vision right away.

However, as a concerned parent, you can look out for several signs of the eye condition. When your child focuses on an object, notice if one eye stays focused while the other one tends to wander. If this happens, then it could be an indication of the eye condition.

5) Refractive errors:-

Refractive error (hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism) happens when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, thus leading to blurred vision. As vision develops in the early years of life, the eye condition could be serious for your child.

Refractive errors cannot be prevented but can be treated upon early diagnosis. Some of the signs of the eye condition to watch out for in your kids include holding objects too close to the eyes and inability to read distant letters.

How to Find a Retina Specialist in Kolkata

retina specialist in Kolkata

You have diabetes and you are suspecting that you might have diabetic retinopathy or macular degeneration. The first thing that you do when you suspect that something is wrong with your vision is to visit an eye specialist. However, when it’s the matter of your retina, you cannot take any chances. You will find a number of retina specialists in Kolkata but how do you choose the best one? You may get in touch with the eye specialists at Disha Eye Hospital. They certainly have the most sophisticated machinery and the best team of eye experts in Kolkata. Otherwise, you consider these points before getting in touch with the right retina specialist:

Continue reading “How to Find a Retina Specialist in Kolkata”

Relieve Computer Eye Strain with These Tips

Best Retina Specialist in Kolkata

Modern workplaces require you to sit with your eyes glued to the computer screen for long. This makes your eyes feel tired, irritated, and strained. Computer Vision Syndrome is an annoyance affecting most of us. Though it doesn’t cause major eye damages; however, staring at the computer screen for too long may give you blurred vision, neck, head, and shoulder pain, dry and burning eyes. This affects your overall well-being and productivity at work.

The good news is, computer eye strain can be easily relieved. Want to know the tricks? Read on:

1. Get your eyes tested

Eye problems, howsoever minor it may be, should NEVER be ignored. Having a routine and thorough eye examination is the best thing you can do to keep your eyes safe and healthy. At least once in a year, you should get your eyes tested by the best retina specialist in Kolkata. If your job requires you to stare constantly at the computer screen, then you must schedule an appointment with the eye specialist at least once a year or as per directed by the doctor. While examination, let the doctor know how often you use a computer and other electronic gadgets (such as tablets and smartphone) at work and home. Measure the distance of your screen from your eyes (both at home and work) and let the doctor know that measurement.

2. Find the Best Viewing Angle

The angle at which you view your computer screen is very important. If the viewing angle is not correct, you can get CVS. To get the best viewing angle the centre of the computer screen should be at a distance of 20-28 inches from your eyes and just 4-5 inches below your eye level. If you are writing something that requires you to shift your eyes between the screen and the reference material then keep those documents in a way where you can see them easily without moving your head too much.

3. Ensure Proper Lighting

Excessive bright or dim light can make your eyes work hard to see clearly. Be it harsh interior lights or sunlight coming through the window; it puts your eyes under lots of strain. While using a computer, keep the ambient lighting just half as bright as we find in typical workplaces. Eliminate the scope of outdoor light by closing the drapes. Use fewer bulbs or fluorescent tubes or low-intensity bulbs when working indoor. If possible, the keep your computer screen in a position so that the windows are to the side and not in front of it or behind it.

4. Check the Display of your screen

Still stuck to an old tube-style monitor or cathode ray tube (CRT)? If yes, then ditch that immediately and shift to a flat-panel LCD. These screens are easier on the eyes and come with an anti-reflective surface. CRT screens flicker and cause eye strain. Whenever buying a computer screen, choose a flat panel display that has a high resolution. Always buy a large display. If you are buying a desktop, get a screen that is at least 19 inches.

5. Adjust the display setting properly

Adjusting the display setting of your computer is essential for reducing computer eye strain. This helps in reducing eye strain. Adjust the brightness of the screen in a way that it matches the brightness of your surroundings. Adjust the text size and the contrast of the screen appropriately. Lower the colour temperature of your display. This reduces the amount of blue light emitted by the screen. This increases the comfort level of your eyes and relieves strain.

6. Blink Often

While working on the computer screen, there are times when we forget to blink and keep gazing at the screen. This makes your eyes dry, thus, increasing eye strain and a burning sensation. Do not do this. Blink often. This keeps your eyes moist. The tears in your eyes dry quickly causing dry eye. Also, the air of the environment you are working in may be dry, which might aggravate the condition. If you are experiencing these symptoms, visit an eye specialist. The eye doctor might give your artificial tears to keep your eyes moist.

7. Try the 20-20-20 rule for relieving strain

Constantly focusing on the computer screen increases eye strain. Do not do that. Look away from the screen every 20 minutes. Look at something that is at least 20 feet away from you for 20 seconds. This relaxes the focusing muscles in your eyes and helps relieve eye strain.

Another easy exercise for relieving eye strain is to look at a distant object for about 10-15 seconds and then look at something nearby. Then again look at some distant object. Repeat this for a few times to relax your eyes. Remember to blink while doing these exercises.

8. Take Breaks

Do not work at a stretch. Take frequent breaks. This helps relieve computer eye strain along with shoulder and back pain. While working for long hours in front of the computer, take short breaks of 5 minutes. During those breaks, stand up, move around, and stretch your arms, legs, neck, and shoulder. This helps reduce muscle tension and fatigue.

9. Get Customised computer glasses

This will provide relief to your eyes. Visit an eye specialist to get your glasses modified (if you wear one). Even if you do not wear glasses then get computer glasses for blocking the harsh blue light and minimising eye strain.

10. Get enough Nutrients

Getting the proper amount of vitamins and nutrients are essential for your eye health. Consider taking vitamins that are rich in antioxidants. Vitamins A, C, and E (with a B complex) can help keep your eyes safe and reduce eye strain.

Best Retina Specialist in Kolkata

Looking for the best retina specialist in Kolkata for consulting about your eye problems? You can get in touch with the retina specialists at Disha Eye Hospital, a place for all your eye care needs. Book an appointment today at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.

Interesting Retina Facts you Didn’t Know

best retina specialist in Kolkata

Retina is a tissue present inside your eyeballs that lines the backside of the eyeballs. It converts the incoming light into nerve signals, and that is how you can see objects clearly under different conditions such as under the sunlight or starlight. It helps in differentiating between the light wavelengths so that you can see colours. Not only that, Retina also gives you the precision to see and detect minute objects including a strand of human hair or speck of dust a few metres away.

Retina is a part of the brain; to be precise, it is a part of the Central Nervous System (CNS). During the embryonic developmental stage in vertebrates, the Retina and the Optic Nerve develop as an outgrowth of the developing brain.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/retina.htm

Here, we have explored interesting facts about the design, working and all related facts about the Retina:

The Retina

  • Similar to the other structures in the Central Nervous System, the shape of the retina is like a plate. It is about a quarter millimetres in thickness. Similar to the layers of cake, the Retina also consists of three layers of nerve-cell bodies. These bodies are separated by two layers that contain the synapses made by the axons and the dendrites of these cells.

Source: http://hubel.med.harvard.edu/book/b8.htm

  • Retina consists of sensory neurones and the intricate neural circuits. The sensory neurones respond to light while the intricate neural circuits perform the primary stages of image processing. Finally, an electrical message travels through the optic nerve to your brain and further processes your visual perception.
  • The photoreceptors or the sensory cells lie at the back of the retina. The light rays need to pass through the entire retina before it reaches the pigment molecules and excites them. This is so because the membranes of the photoreceptors containing the pigments must be in touch with the Epithelial Layer of the Eye. This layer provides a steady stream of Retinal or Vitamin A, one of the vital molecules.
  • After these Retinal molecules are exposed to light, they undergo a conformational change and are recycled back into the pigment epithelium. This tissue is located behind the retina. It is very dark as its cells contain melanin granules. These granules absorb stray photons thus preventing them from creating a reflection on the photoreceptors, which might make the images appear blurred. These melanin granules also safeguard the cells from overexposure to light radiation.

Source: http://webvision.med.utah.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2003-01Kolb.pdf

The Design of Retina

  • The Retina of all vertebrate contains two types of photoreceptors. These are the rods and the cones. Rods are used for low-light vision and Cones for daylight and any bright-coloured vision. The Retinas of frogs, fishes, turtle and bird contain at least 3-5 different types of cones. And that is why they have a very good colour vision. On the other hand, the Retinas of most of the mammals predominantly consist of rods.
  • The Retinas of most of the mammals contain two types of cones: the green-sensitive ones and the others are blue-sensitive cones. However, primates have one extra type of cones in their eyes. These cones are red-sensitive cones. With the cone vision of your eye, you can see images starting from the grey shades of dawn to the eye-dazzling brightness of noon when the sun is the brightest.
  • The cone photoreceptors can adapt to the surrounding brightness, and the circuitry in the retina further regulates the eye’s response to the brightness. Similar to the cone photoreceptors, the rod photoreceptors and the neural circuitry (to which they are connected) can adapt to the low intensity of light.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Retina

  • The brightest and the most brilliant colour vision are experienced by the eye when the light directly falls on the small dimple on the Retina, also known as the Macula or the Fovea Centralis. This region has a high presence of cones which are smaller and tightly packed compared to any other region on the Retina.
  • Your eyes receive data from a field that ranges up to 200 degrees. The visual acuity over most of that range is very poor.  In order to form high-resolution images, the light needs to fall on the Fovea. This limits your acute vision angle to about 15 degrees. In low light, the Fovea constitutes a second blind spot as because it is only the cones that have low light sensitivity. So, during night. If you want to get the maximum visual acuity, shift the vision slightly to one side by at least 4 to 12 degrees. In this way, the light will fall on some rods.

Source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/retina.html

  • The diameter of the Anatomic Macula or Area Centralis is about 4.5–6 mm. These are centred on the fovea and are located between the superior and inferior temporal arcades. The macula or the fovea centralis is located about 3 mm temporal to the optic disc. It has a diameter of about 1.5 mm.

Source: https://www.libreriauniverso.it/pdf/9783642120404.pdf

  • The Fovea is the central part of the macula. It is formed by a central depression of about 0.35 mm wide. Clinically, one can recognise the area by the foveal reflex. If it is lost, then it indicates an early macular disease.
  • The peripheral retina constitutes the rest of the retina which is outside the temporal retinal arteries. If considered anatomically, the peripheral retina contains only a layer of ganglion cells.
  • Each adult human retina consists of 3.5 million Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells.
  • The human retina constitutes about 4 to 5 million cones and about 77 to 107 million rods.
  • Each photoreceptor cell in your eye contains an outer segment (photopigment), the inner segment (mitochondria, endoplasmatic reticulum), a nucleus, an inner fibre, and the synaptic terminal.
  • The ganglion cell layer and the photoreceptor layer are connected by the Interneurons in the inner nuclear retinal layer. These interneurons contain the bipolar, horizontal, amacrine, and the inner plexiform cells. These cells constitute the complex neuroretinal circuits that help in processing the photoreceptor signal and then transmit that information to the ganglion cells. In other words, the photoreceptor cell is directly connected to the ganglion cell through bipolar cells. The rods and cones provide input to these bipolar cells.
  • The visual information is transmitted by the ganglion cells from the retina to your brain. The ganglion perikarya are the largest retinal neurones. These are located in the ganglion cell layer. Their axons run in on the inner surface of the retina in a separate layer and are collected at the optic disk. From there, they exit the eye as the optic nerve.

Source: https://www.libreriauniverso.it/pdf/9783642120404.pdf

Retinal Diseases

A healthy Retina is essential for good vision. Retinal disorders affect the vital tissues of the eye, thus affecting your vision. It can even cause blindness. Common Retinal disorders include:

  • Macular Degeneration: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is cased when the Macula of your Retina is damaged. People suffering from AMD lose their central vision. You won’t be able to see fine details. Your peripheral or side vision remains normal. AMD is of two types:

Dry AMD

This type of AMD is very common. About 80% of the people who suffer from AMD suffer from the dry form. When parts of your macula get thinner with age, tiny clumps of protein called drusen grow on them. With this, you slowly lose your central vision. There is no way to treat dry AMD.

Wet AMD

This is less common; however is a serious one. When there is an abnormal growth of blood vessels under the retina, the condition is called Wet AMD. Blood or other fluid often leaks from these vessels that cause scarring of the macula. Compared to dry AMD, you tend to lose vision faster with wet AMD.

People often do not realise they are suffering from AMD until their vision gets extremely blurred.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/amd-macular-degeneration

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
    People with diabetes suffer from this eye disease.  High blood sugar levels often damage the blood vessels in the retina. This causes the blood vessels to swell and leak. They even close, thereby completely stopping blood flow. Many times, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the retina.  These changes too can cause vision loss.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-diabetic-retinopathy

  • Retinal Vein Occlusion
    The veins that carry blood away from the retina get blocked causing Retinal Vein Occlusion. Retinal vein occlusion is often caused when the arteries harden, thus, causing blood clots.

Blockage of smaller veins in the retina often occurs in places where the retinal arteries have thickened. This puts excess pressure on the retinal vein. Several factors can cause Retinal Vein Occlusion. This includes:

  • Atherosclerosis
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Diabetes
  • Other eye conditions, such as macular edema, glaucoma, and vitreous haemorrhage

The risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion increases with age, and thus, older adults are vulnerable to retinal vein occlusion.

Source: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007330.htm

  • Retinal Tear or Detachment
    Often it happens that the vitreous moves away from the retina without causing any serious problem.  However, sometimes it pulls so hard that it tears the retina. Fluid tends to pass through this retinal tear, thus lifting it off the back of the eye similar to the way you peel wallpaper off the wall. This is known as retinal detachment. As the retina gets detached from the eye, your vision becomes blurry. This is a very serious problem that results in blindness unless you undergo a detached retina surgery.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/detached-torn-retina

  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
    This is a group of eye problems that affect your retina. Retinitis Pigmentosa affects the way your retina responds to light, thus making it difficult for you to see clearly. People suffering from Retinitis Pigmentosa may slowly lose their vision over time. However, people do not become completely blind.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-retinitis-pigmentosa

  • Macular Hole
    People suffering from this condition often notice a sudden decrease in vision in one eye. Macular hole often occurs due to Vitreous shrinkage and/or separation. This condition is caused by a number of other conditions such as:
  • Diabetic eye disease
  • Macular pucker
  • High amounts of nearsightedness
  • A detached retina
  • Best’s disease (this is an inherited condition that causes macular damage)
  • Eye injury
  • Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/macular-holes.htm

  • Epiretinal Membrane (ERM)

This condition is commonly known as cellophane maculopathy or macular puckers. In this condition semitranslucent, avascular (having few or no blood vessels), fibrocellular membranes develop on the inner surface of the retina. They cause minimal symptoms and can be diagnosed only after close observation. However, in a number of other cases, they also cause painless loss of vision and metamorphopsia or distortion of vision. Generally, ERMs give symptoms when it affects the macula or the central portion of the retina. The macula is the part that helps us to identify fine detail, helps in reading and recognising faces. So, distortion of vision is more evident when ERM affect eyes.

Most of the patients suffering from ERMs do not experience any symptoms. After close examination of the retina or during a dilated retinal exam the eye specialist detects the condition. Retinal imaging such as with ocular coherence tomography (OCT) is also used for identifying ERM.  In these cases, patients usually have a normal or a near-normal vision. However, this condition can get worse with time causing great visual distortion. Defect on the surface layer of the retina causing the glial cells to migrate there and start growing on the retinal surface can give rise to this condition. This extra growth appears like cellophane and may contract with time, thus causing traction and macular puckers and poor vision quality.

Source: https://www.asrs.org/patients/retinal-diseases/19/epiretinal-membranes

This is why it is crucial visits ophthalmologists or retina specialists regularly. They can examine your eyes closely and determine the early symptoms of any retinal problem.

Wondering where to get the best retina specialist in Kolkata? We are here to help you. Book an appointment with us today at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.