10 Things to Know about Swollen Eyelids

Have you ever wondered why your eyelids look swollen? Well, it may be lack of sleep. But if it doesn’t go away in more than 48 hours then it’s a cause for concern. Eyes usually swell up when excess fluid accumulates near the area around the eyes. The swelling can happen in your upper or lower eyelid, much to your annoyance and discomfort. However, if the swelling remains longer than 48 hours, it’s time to see an eye doctor otherwise you run a risk of damaging your eyes. There are several factors that can cause your eyelids to swell. Here’s a low-down on why your eyelids swell up and what should you do to address the problem:

1. A symptom of an underlying condition: Swollen eyelids are more often than not a symptom of an underlying cause. They are themselves no problem but symptomatic of various eye conditions, like allergy or conjunctivitis. Often when you have swollen eyes, you experience irritation, sensitivity to light, and watery eyes. A combination of these symptoms suggests that there’s something severely wrong with your eyes.

2. Allergies can cause eyes to swell: Exposure to pollen, dust, and pet dander can cause your eyes to swell up. Sometimes expired eye cosmetics and contact lens solutions can also cause an adverse reaction, making your eyelids look puffy and making your eyes watery.

3. Conjunctivitis: One of the most common infections that cause your eyelids to swell up and turn red is conjunctivitis, a common infection caused by a virus, bacteria, allergens or other irritants. As the eyes turn pinkish red conjunctivitis is also called a pink eye.

4. Sty: A sty looks like a boil filled with pus or a pimple or a red bump. It usually forms just at the edge of the eyelids. A sty is caused by an infection of oil glands in the eyelid and one must see an eye doctor if your eye condition does improve in 48 hours or the redness and swelling extend beyond your eyelids. Till you have sty, you should avoid using any cosmetics. Also, avoid touching your eyes with dirty hands. Applying a warm washcloth can help relieve you of discomfort. However, seeing an eye doctor is a must.

Consult best eye hospital in Kolkata

If your eyes are swelling up, get yourself checked by best eye specialists at Disha Eye Hospital, one of the top eye hospitals in Kolkata. To explore our eye treatments that are available at affordable prices, visit http://www.dishaeye.org/.

5. Chalazion: A chalazion is quite like a sty but only slightly bigger. Unlike a sty, it forms away from the edge of the eyelid. Both children and adults can develop styes and chalazia. See an eye specialist if a bump appears near your eyelids.

6. Crying: If you are going through an emotionally tough phase in your life, a good crying session can help you de-stress. However, the puffy eyes that don’t make things easy for you. Applying a cold compress or cucumber slices can help reduce swelling.

7. Physical injury: Getting hit by a cricket ball or some other object can cause eyelids to swell up. In such a scenario, first, wash your eyes with water. Then rush to the nearest eye hospital. If you think something is stuck in the eye, don’t try to remove it yourself as it can damage your eyes.

8. Life-threatening diseases: Some life-threatening diseases like orbital cellulitis, Graves’ disease, and ocular herpes can also cause eyelids to swell up. Orbital cellulitis is a dangerous infection, that affects the eyelids, eyebrows, and cheeks. It is commonly found among children below 7 years of age but the incidence of orbital cellulitis has gone down because of the vaccination. Graves’ disease is an immune system disorder that affects the overall well-being of the patient. Besides puffy eyelids, one may experience fatigue, anxiety, and weight loss. Ocular herpes is a common eye infection that affects the cornea. It can cause blindness if not treated on time. The disease can often be confused with conjunctivitis. Thus, it is very important to get the right diagnosis.

9. Avoid swollen eyelids: Getting yourself tested for allergens can help you prevent your eyelids from getting swollen after reacting to allergens like pollens and dust. Either avoid or reduce the use of eye cosmetics. If you still have to, you should opt for hypoallergenic cosmetics that will not cause flare-ups.

10. Proper hygiene: Those of you who wear contact lenses when handling your lenses make sure your hands are not just washed but sanitised too. Follow proper hygiene process while putting in or taking off your lenses. If your contact lens solution is causing you trouble, ask your eye specialist to suggest you a new one rather than just changing brands without knowing what is causing the irritation.

Get comprehensive eye check up at Disha Eye Hospital

If you have swollen eyelids or you are experiencing any form of irritation in the eye, let the best eye specialists in Kolkata at Disha Eye Hospital diagnose your problems. At Disha Eye Hospital, we offer a range of ophthalmic services like LASIK and refractive surgeries and cataract surgery. Know more about services here http://www.dishaeye.org/.

17 Interesting Facts on Eye Chart

Low visual acuity is one of the most common eye problems people face worldwide. An eye chart is the most common diagnostic tool used to test the visual acuity. In fact, there’s no other better way to test visual acuity and diagnose vision errors than through eye chart
Interested in knowing more about eye chart? Here’s a 5-minute read on some of the amazing facts about eye chart. Continue reading “17 Interesting Facts on Eye Chart”

10 Facts on Eye Injuries

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Eye injuries can happen anytime, anywhere. You might get an eye injury while playing a sport or you might accidentally bump your eye. Even dust particles blown into your eyes can injure your eyes. While many small injuries and surface scratches can be treated at home easily, many serious eye injuries might cost you your vision. Here’re a few facts about eye injuries and ways to treat them:

1. Cut on your Eyelid or Eyelid Laceration
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Sports and recreational activities often expose you to the risk of eyelid laceration. A direct blow to your eyes might cut and injure the eyelid and also result in bruising around your eyes. If you have cut your eyelid, use a sterile bandage to cover that area. Avoid cotton as it might get stuck in the wound. Apply ice packs and keep your head elevated to reduce swelling. You can take painkillers such as ibuprofen and aspirin (do not take aspirin if you are younger than 20 years). If the symptoms do not go away by 24 hours, visit an eye specialist immediately.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tc/eye-injuries-home-treatment#1

2. Corneal Abrasion
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Common causes of corneal abrasion include rubbing the eye hard when a foreign particle is present in the eye or if you get poked in your eye. This condition is very uncomfortable and makes your eyes red and cause swelling. If you get a scratched on your eye, avoid rubbing and patching it. This exposes it to bacterial infection. Keep your eyes closed or loosely tape it. Apply an ice pack. Visit your doctor immediately to avoid any further complication.

Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/eye-injuries.htm

3. Chemical Burn

There might be situations chemicals might get sprayed into your eyes. It could be during cleaning your home or during any other activity. While some chemicals are relatively harmless causing just a stinging and burning sensation for a while but there are some that might result in serious eye damage. Acids can be easily washed out from your eyes while Alkali substances may cause serious injuries. If you accidentally get chemicals in your eye, then do not rub it. Instead, put your head into a stream of water and let the water run through your eyes and down your face for at least 15 minutes. Put a cool and moist compress on your eyes. Your eye is at greater risk if it continues to be red and your vision is blurred. Immediately consult an eye specialist if the condition persists.

Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/eye-injuries.htm

4. Traumatic Iritis
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It is an injury to the coloured part of your eye that’s surrounding the pupil. A blow to your eyes with a blunt object such as a ball or fist cause traumatic iritis. To treat this condition, you need to visit the doctor. Ensure that you take the medication on time. Sometimes, light or glare can cause discomfort in your eyes. To avoid that, wear dark glasses.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/iritis#2-7

5. Black eye

When you are struck in your eyes, you might get a Black eye. The signs of a black eye are swelling in the eyelid and the soft tissue around the eye that has been struck. Sometimes this is accompanied by broken blood vessels along the white part of your eye. This is also known as a subconjunctival haemorrhage. Initially, the colour might appear deep purple or blue and then turn to green before disappearing. It takes about a week to vanish completely. Apply cold compress on that areas. This helps in easing swelling and narrowing your blood vessels. That helps in stopping bleeding below your skin. Give 10 minutes intervals in between each application. Otherwise, he ice can damage your skin. Visit the doctor if you have blurred or double vision.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/understanding-black-eye-symptoms
http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/understanding-black-eye-treatment

6. Subconjunctival Haemorrhage
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Broken blood vessels in the eye are pretty common and are caused by a blow or trauma to the eyes. This may result from even a minor injury to the eye. This is a painless condition and doesn’t cause vision loss. In such cases, avoid rubbing your eyes as this might aggravate the condition. A subconjunctival haemorrhage usually heals on its own and doesn’t need any treatment. Depending on how big the spot is, the injury might take a few days or a few weeks to heal. You might apply artificial tears to sooth the irritation; however, this doesn’t heal the injury. If you get this injury often, talk to your eye specialist.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/subconjunctival-hemorrhage-treatment

7. Hyphaema

This condition occurs when any injury to the eye tears its iris or pupil. People tend to mistake this condition with subconjunctival haemorrhage which is a painless and harmless condition. Hyphaema causes pain in your eyes and even cause blurred vision. Your eyes will appear as if it is filled with blood. This is a condition that calls for immediate medical attention. Go straight to an eye specialist for further treatment. If neglected, it might affect your quality of vision.

Source: http://www.webmd.boots.com/eye-health/guide/hyphaema-eye-internal-bleeding

What to Do in Case of Eye Injury?

8. In the case of any eye injury, keep in mind the following things:

  • NEVER touch, rub the eyes
  • NEVER try to remove the object that’s stuck in your eyes
  • NEVER apply any ointment to the eye

9. If the eyes have been cut then:

  • NEVER rinse eye with water
  • NEVER apply pressure to the eye or rub it

10. If any foreign particle gets in your eyes then:

  • NEVER rub the eye
  • Blink rapidly to get the tears to flush out the foreign body
  • If it doesn’t go, keep the eye closed and visit a doctor
  • Seek medical attention right away in case of any injury.

Disha Eye Hospital Can help you with your Eye Problems

Be it a minor injury or a serious issue, problems in the eyes shouldn’t be ignored. If you have any kind of eye issues, you can refer to our specialists. Our eye specialists are working relentlessly to keep your vision safe. Call us today at 03366360000 or visit http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment to book an appointment.

Interesting Retina Facts you Didn’t Know

best retina specialist in Kolkata

Retina is a tissue present inside your eyeballs that lines the backside of the eyeballs. It converts the incoming light into nerve signals, and that is how you can see objects clearly under different conditions such as under the sunlight or starlight. It helps in differentiating between the light wavelengths so that you can see colours. Not only that, Retina also gives you the precision to see and detect minute objects including a strand of human hair or speck of dust a few metres away.

Retina is a part of the brain; to be precise, it is a part of the Central Nervous System (CNS). During the embryonic developmental stage in vertebrates, the Retina and the Optic Nerve develop as an outgrowth of the developing brain.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/retina.htm

Here, we have explored interesting facts about the design, working and all related facts about the Retina:

The Retina

  • Similar to the other structures in the Central Nervous System, the shape of the retina is like a plate. It is about a quarter millimetres in thickness. Similar to the layers of cake, the Retina also consists of three layers of nerve-cell bodies. These bodies are separated by two layers that contain the synapses made by the axons and the dendrites of these cells.

Source: http://hubel.med.harvard.edu/book/b8.htm

  • Retina consists of sensory neurones and the intricate neural circuits. The sensory neurones respond to light while the intricate neural circuits perform the primary stages of image processing. Finally, an electrical message travels through the optic nerve to your brain and further processes your visual perception.
  • The photoreceptors or the sensory cells lie at the back of the retina. The light rays need to pass through the entire retina before it reaches the pigment molecules and excites them. This is so because the membranes of the photoreceptors containing the pigments must be in touch with the Epithelial Layer of the Eye. This layer provides a steady stream of Retinal or Vitamin A, one of the vital molecules.
  • After these Retinal molecules are exposed to light, they undergo a conformational change and are recycled back into the pigment epithelium. This tissue is located behind the retina. It is very dark as its cells contain melanin granules. These granules absorb stray photons thus preventing them from creating a reflection on the photoreceptors, which might make the images appear blurred. These melanin granules also safeguard the cells from overexposure to light radiation.

Source: http://webvision.med.utah.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/2003-01Kolb.pdf

The Design of Retina

  • The Retina of all vertebrate contains two types of photoreceptors. These are the rods and the cones. Rods are used for low-light vision and Cones for daylight and any bright-coloured vision. The Retinas of frogs, fishes, turtle and bird contain at least 3-5 different types of cones. And that is why they have a very good colour vision. On the other hand, the Retinas of most of the mammals predominantly consist of rods.
  • The Retinas of most of the mammals contain two types of cones: the green-sensitive ones and the others are blue-sensitive cones. However, primates have one extra type of cones in their eyes. These cones are red-sensitive cones. With the cone vision of your eye, you can see images starting from the grey shades of dawn to the eye-dazzling brightness of noon when the sun is the brightest.
  • The cone photoreceptors can adapt to the surrounding brightness, and the circuitry in the retina further regulates the eye’s response to the brightness. Similar to the cone photoreceptors, the rod photoreceptors and the neural circuitry (to which they are connected) can adapt to the low intensity of light.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Retina

  • The brightest and the most brilliant colour vision are experienced by the eye when the light directly falls on the small dimple on the Retina, also known as the Macula or the Fovea Centralis. This region has a high presence of cones which are smaller and tightly packed compared to any other region on the Retina.
  • Your eyes receive data from a field that ranges up to 200 degrees. The visual acuity over most of that range is very poor.  In order to form high-resolution images, the light needs to fall on the Fovea. This limits your acute vision angle to about 15 degrees. In low light, the Fovea constitutes a second blind spot as because it is only the cones that have low light sensitivity. So, during night. If you want to get the maximum visual acuity, shift the vision slightly to one side by at least 4 to 12 degrees. In this way, the light will fall on some rods.

Source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/retina.html

  • The diameter of the Anatomic Macula or Area Centralis is about 4.5–6 mm. These are centred on the fovea and are located between the superior and inferior temporal arcades. The macula or the fovea centralis is located about 3 mm temporal to the optic disc. It has a diameter of about 1.5 mm.

Source: https://www.libreriauniverso.it/pdf/9783642120404.pdf

  • The Fovea is the central part of the macula. It is formed by a central depression of about 0.35 mm wide. Clinically, one can recognise the area by the foveal reflex. If it is lost, then it indicates an early macular disease.
  • The peripheral retina constitutes the rest of the retina which is outside the temporal retinal arteries. If considered anatomically, the peripheral retina contains only a layer of ganglion cells.
  • Each adult human retina consists of 3.5 million Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells.
  • The human retina constitutes about 4 to 5 million cones and about 77 to 107 million rods.
  • Each photoreceptor cell in your eye contains an outer segment (photopigment), the inner segment (mitochondria, endoplasmatic reticulum), a nucleus, an inner fibre, and the synaptic terminal.
  • The ganglion cell layer and the photoreceptor layer are connected by the Interneurons in the inner nuclear retinal layer. These interneurons contain the bipolar, horizontal, amacrine, and the inner plexiform cells. These cells constitute the complex neuroretinal circuits that help in processing the photoreceptor signal and then transmit that information to the ganglion cells. In other words, the photoreceptor cell is directly connected to the ganglion cell through bipolar cells. The rods and cones provide input to these bipolar cells.
  • The visual information is transmitted by the ganglion cells from the retina to your brain. The ganglion perikarya are the largest retinal neurones. These are located in the ganglion cell layer. Their axons run in on the inner surface of the retina in a separate layer and are collected at the optic disk. From there, they exit the eye as the optic nerve.

Source: https://www.libreriauniverso.it/pdf/9783642120404.pdf

Retinal Diseases

A healthy Retina is essential for good vision. Retinal disorders affect the vital tissues of the eye, thus affecting your vision. It can even cause blindness. Common Retinal disorders include:

  • Macular Degeneration: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is cased when the Macula of your Retina is damaged. People suffering from AMD lose their central vision. You won’t be able to see fine details. Your peripheral or side vision remains normal. AMD is of two types:

Dry AMD

This type of AMD is very common. About 80% of the people who suffer from AMD suffer from the dry form. When parts of your macula get thinner with age, tiny clumps of protein called drusen grow on them. With this, you slowly lose your central vision. There is no way to treat dry AMD.

Wet AMD

This is less common; however is a serious one. When there is an abnormal growth of blood vessels under the retina, the condition is called Wet AMD. Blood or other fluid often leaks from these vessels that cause scarring of the macula. Compared to dry AMD, you tend to lose vision faster with wet AMD.

People often do not realise they are suffering from AMD until their vision gets extremely blurred.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/amd-macular-degeneration

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
    People with diabetes suffer from this eye disease.  High blood sugar levels often damage the blood vessels in the retina. This causes the blood vessels to swell and leak. They even close, thereby completely stopping blood flow. Many times, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the retina.  These changes too can cause vision loss.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-diabetic-retinopathy

  • Retinal Vein Occlusion
    The veins that carry blood away from the retina get blocked causing Retinal Vein Occlusion. Retinal vein occlusion is often caused when the arteries harden, thus, causing blood clots.

Blockage of smaller veins in the retina often occurs in places where the retinal arteries have thickened. This puts excess pressure on the retinal vein. Several factors can cause Retinal Vein Occlusion. This includes:

  • Atherosclerosis
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Diabetes
  • Other eye conditions, such as macular edema, glaucoma, and vitreous haemorrhage

The risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion increases with age, and thus, older adults are vulnerable to retinal vein occlusion.

Source: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007330.htm

  • Retinal Tear or Detachment
    Often it happens that the vitreous moves away from the retina without causing any serious problem.  However, sometimes it pulls so hard that it tears the retina. Fluid tends to pass through this retinal tear, thus lifting it off the back of the eye similar to the way you peel wallpaper off the wall. This is known as retinal detachment. As the retina gets detached from the eye, your vision becomes blurry. This is a very serious problem that results in blindness unless you undergo a detached retina surgery.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/detached-torn-retina

  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
    This is a group of eye problems that affect your retina. Retinitis Pigmentosa affects the way your retina responds to light, thus making it difficult for you to see clearly. People suffering from Retinitis Pigmentosa may slowly lose their vision over time. However, people do not become completely blind.

Source: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-retinitis-pigmentosa

  • Macular Hole
    People suffering from this condition often notice a sudden decrease in vision in one eye. Macular hole often occurs due to Vitreous shrinkage and/or separation. This condition is caused by a number of other conditions such as:
  • Diabetic eye disease
  • Macular pucker
  • High amounts of nearsightedness
  • A detached retina
  • Best’s disease (this is an inherited condition that causes macular damage)
  • Eye injury
  • Source: http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/macular-holes.htm

  • Epiretinal Membrane (ERM)

This condition is commonly known as cellophane maculopathy or macular puckers. In this condition semitranslucent, avascular (having few or no blood vessels), fibrocellular membranes develop on the inner surface of the retina. They cause minimal symptoms and can be diagnosed only after close observation. However, in a number of other cases, they also cause painless loss of vision and metamorphopsia or distortion of vision. Generally, ERMs give symptoms when it affects the macula or the central portion of the retina. The macula is the part that helps us to identify fine detail, helps in reading and recognising faces. So, distortion of vision is more evident when ERM affect eyes.

Most of the patients suffering from ERMs do not experience any symptoms. After close examination of the retina or during a dilated retinal exam the eye specialist detects the condition. Retinal imaging such as with ocular coherence tomography (OCT) is also used for identifying ERM.  In these cases, patients usually have a normal or a near-normal vision. However, this condition can get worse with time causing great visual distortion. Defect on the surface layer of the retina causing the glial cells to migrate there and start growing on the retinal surface can give rise to this condition. This extra growth appears like cellophane and may contract with time, thus causing traction and macular puckers and poor vision quality.

Source: https://www.asrs.org/patients/retinal-diseases/19/epiretinal-membranes

This is why it is crucial visits ophthalmologists or retina specialists regularly. They can examine your eyes closely and determine the early symptoms of any retinal problem.

Wondering where to get the best retina specialist in Kolkata? We are here to help you. Book an appointment with us today at http://www.dishaeye.org/appointment.